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08-03-2011, 01:43 PM
Post: #9
RE: witricity full report
PRESENTED BY
D.SANDEEP KUMAR


.doc  A SEMINOR ON WITRICITY.doc (Size: 1.14 MB / Downloads: 375)
ABSTRACT
Human brains always search for the new ways and means which makes life easy and simple. Over the past years great scientists invented great things which changed the world completely and effectively. Even then the thrust for the new inventions was not fulfilled.
So many new things are dumped in to the market time-to-time. Among those electronic gadgets have major share. Now a days our life depends much on electronic devices. All these devices have different cables and pins for their operation. We have to insert those cables in the sockets for the supply and also some times to recharge some of the devices.
Let us take an example as cell phone. We have to charge it time to time other wise it will be switched off. So we use a cable to charge it. If we forget that we will loss some thing. Similarly all the electronic gadgets depend on cables for their operation.
Imagine if all the gadgets take care of themselves and become independent of cables. It will be a great and very useful thing to implement. A professor from MIT named MARIN SOLJACIC had this wonderful thought and with the help of some other members found one interesting concept called WITRICITY. Witricity is a portmanteau for wireless electricity. This concept laid the way to get rid of the wires and cables.
INTRODUCTION
Electricity is today a necessity of modern life. It is difficult to imagine passing a day without electricity. The conventional use of electricity is made possible through the use of wires. However researchers in MIT have devised a means of providing electricity without any wires.
These researchers coined the term WITRICITY, which is basically a portmanteau for wireless electricity. This principle of wireless electricity works on the principle of using coupled resonant objects for the transference of electricity to objects without the use of any wires. A Witricity system consists of a Witricity transmitter and another device called the receiver.
The receiver works on the same principle as radio receivers where the device has to be in the range of the transmitter. It is with the help of resonant magnetic fields that Witricity produces electricity, while reducing the wastage of power. This is unlike the principle adopted by Nikola Tesla in the later part of the 19th century; where conduction based systems were used. The present project on Witricity aims at power transmissions in the range of 100 watts. May be the products using WITRICITY in future might be called Witric or Witric's.
So far the MIT researchers have been able to power a 60 watt light bulb from a power source that is located about seven feet away, while providing forty percent efficiency. This was made possible using two copper coils that were twenty inches in diameter which were designed so that they resonated together in the MHz range. One of these coils were connected to a power source while the other, to a bulb. With this witricity setup, the bulb got powered even when the coils were not in sight.
Resonant induction:
In November 2006, Marin Soljacic and other researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology applied the near field behavior well known in electromagnetic theory to a wireless power transmission concept based on strongly-coupled resonators. In a theoretical analysis (see Ref: Annals of Physics), they demonstrate that, by designing electromagnetic resonators that suffer minimal loss due to radiation and absorption and have a near field with mid-range extent (namely a few times the resonator size), mid-range efficient wireless energy-transfer is possible. The reason is that, if two such resonant objects are brought in mid-range proximity, their near fields (consisting of so-called 'evanescent waves') couple (evanescent wave coupling) and can allow the energy to tunnel/transfer from one object to the other within times much shorter than all loss times, which were designed to be long, and thus with the maximum possible energy-transfer efficiency. Since the resonant wavelength is much larger than the resonators, the field can circumvent extraneous objects in the vicinity and thus this mid-range energy-transfer scheme does not require line-of-sight. By utilizing in particular the magnetic field to achieve the coupling, this method can be safe, since magnetic fields interact weakly with living organisms.
1) Power from mains to antenna, which is made of copper
2) Antenna resonates at a frequency of 6.4MHz, emitting electromagnetic waves
3) 'Tails' of energy from antenna 'tunnel' up to 5m (16.4ft)
4) Electricity picked up by laptop's antenna, which must also be resonating at 6.4MHz. Energy used to re-charge device
5) Energy not transferred to laptop re-absorbed by source antenna. People/other objects not affected as not resonating at 6.4MHz
On June 7, 2007, it was reported that a prototype system had been implemented. In an experimental demonstration (see Ref: Science), the MIT researchers successfully demonstrated the ability to power a 60-watt light bulb wirelessly using two copper coils of 60cm diameter that were 2m (7ft) away at roughly 45% efficiency. The coils were designed to resonate together at 10MHz and were oriented along the same axis. One was connected inductively to a power source, and the other one to a bulb. The setup powered the bulb on, even when the direct line of sight was blocked using a wooden panel.
"Resonant inductive coupling" has key implications in solving the two main problems associated with non-resonant inductive coupling and electromagnetic radiation, one of which is caused by the other; distance and efficiency. Electromagnetic induction works on the principle of a primary coil generating a predominantly magnetic field and a secondary coil being within that field so a current is induced within its coils. This causes the relatively short range due to the amount of power required to produce an electromagnetic field. Over greater distances the non-resonant induction method is inefficient and wastes much of the transmitted energy just to increase range. This is where the resonance comes in and helps efficiency dramatically by "tunneling" the magnetic field to a receiver coil that resonates at the same frequency. Unlike the multiple-layer secondary of a non-resonant transformer, such receiving coils are single layer solenoids with closely spaced capacitor plates on each end, which in combination allow the coil to be tuned to the transmitter frequency thereby eliminating the wide energy wasting "wave problem" and allowing the energy used to focus in on a specific frequency increasing the range.
Beginning in the early 1960s resonant inductive wireless energy transfer was used successfully in implantable medical devices [14] including such devices as pacemakers and artificial hearts. While the early systems used a resonant receiver coil later systems implemented resonant transmitter coils as well. These medical devices are designed for high efficiency using low power electronics while efficiently accommodating some misalignment and dynamic twisting of the coils. The separation between the coils in implantable applications is commonly less than 20 cm. Today resonant inductive energy transfer is regularly used for providing electric power in many commercially available medical implantable devices.
Wireless electric energy transfer for experimentally powering electric automobiles and buses is a higher power application (>10kW) of resonant inductive energy transfer. High power levels are required for rapid recharging and high energy transfer efficiency is required both for operational economy and to avoid negative environmental impact of the system. An experimental electrified roadway test track built circa 1990 achieved 80% energy efficiency
While recharging the battery of a prototype bus at a specially equipped bus stop, the bus could be outfitted with a retractable receiving coil for greater coil clearance when moving.
16-03-2011, 04:16 PM
Post: #10
RE: witricity full report

.doc  WITRICITY WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION.doc (Size: 438 KB / Downloads: 241)
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this paper is to introduce a new system of transmitting the power which is called wireless electricity or witricity. Witricity is based upon coupled resonant objects to transfer electrical energy between objects without wires. The system consists of a Witricity transmitter (power source), and devices which act as receivers (electrical load). It is based on the principle of resonant coupling and microwave energy transfers. The action of an electrical transformer is the simplest instance of wireless energy transfer. There are mainly two types of transfers i.e. short range and long range transmission. The short range are of 2-3metres where as the long range are of few kilometers.
Wireless transmission is ideal in cases where instantaneous or continuous energy transfer is needed, but interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. The tangle of cables and plugs needed to recharge today's electronic gadgets could soon be a thing of the past. The concept exploits century-old physics and could work over distances of many metres. Consumers desire a simple universal solution that frees them from the hassles of plug-in chargers and adaptors. "Wireless power technology has the potential to deliver on all of these needs." However, transferring the power is the important part of the solution.
Witricity, standing for wireless electricity, is a term coined by MIT researchers, to describe the ability to provide electricity to remote objects without wires. Using self-resonant coils in a strongly coupled regime, efficient non-radiative power transfer over distances of up to eight times the radius of the coils can be done.. Unlike the conduction-based systems, Witricity uses resonant magnetic fields to reduce wastage of power. Currently the project is looking for power transmissions in the range of 100 watts.
With wireless energy transfer, the efficiency is a more critical parameter and this creates important differences from the wireless data transmission technologies. To avoid the conflicts like recharging and carrying its appliances of electrical and electronic devices, wireless power transmission is desirable. Wireless power transmission was originally proposed to avoid long distance electrical distribution based mainly on copper cables. This can be achieved by using microwave beams and the rectifying antenna, or rectenna, which can receive electromagnetic radiation and convert it efficiently to DC electricity. Researchers have developed several techniques for moving electricity over long distances without wires. Some exist only as theories or prototypes, but others are already in use. Magnetic resonance was found a promising means of electricity transfer because magnetic fields travel freely through air yet have little effect on the environment or, at the appropriate frequencies, on living beings and hence is a leading technology for developing witricity
HOW IT WORKS-
Wireless light: Researchers used magnetic resonance coupling to power a 60-watt light bulb. Tuned to the same frequency, two 60-centimeter copper coils can transmit electricity over a distance of two meters, through the air and around an obstacle.
The researchers built two resonant copper coils and hung them from the ceiling, about two meters apart.
When they plugged one coil into the wall, alternating current flowed through it,
Creating a magnetic field.
The second coil, tuned to the same frequency and hooked to a light bulb, reso¬nated with the magnetic field, generating an electric current that lit up the bulb--even with a thin wall between the coils.
How wireless energy could work-
"Resonance", a phenomenon that causes an object to vibrate when energy of a certain frequency is applied. Two resonant objects of the same frequency tend to couple very strongly." Resonance can be seen in musical instruments for example. "When you play a tune on one, then another instrument with the same acoustic resonance will pick up that tune, it will visibly vibrate,"
Instead of using acoustic vibrations, system exploits the resonance of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic radiation includes radio waves, infrared and X-rays. Typically, systems that use electromagnetic radiation, such as radio antennas, are not suitable for the efficient transfer of energy because they scatter energy in all directions, wasting large amounts of it into free space.
To overcome this problem, the team investigated a special class of "non-radiative" objects with so-called "long-lived resonances". When energy is applied to these objects it remains bound to them, rather than escaping to space. "Tails" of energy, which can be many metres long, flicker over the surface. If another resonant object is brought with the same frequency close enough to these tails then it turns out that the energy can tunnel from one object to another.
Hence, a simple copper antenna designed to have long-lived resonance could transfer energy to a laptop with its own antenna resonating at the same frequency. The computer would be truly wireless. Any energy not diverted into a gadget or appliance is simply reabsorbed. The systems that are described would be able to transfer energy over three to five metres. This
18-03-2011, 11:40 AM
Post: #11
RE: witricity full report
Presented by:
RAVI KUMAR. A & RAMA CHANDRA. M


.ppt  WITRICITY.ppt (Size: 1.72 MB / Downloads: 398)
History of Wireless Power:
 In 1899, Sir Nikola Tesla Proposed a method of Wireless Power Transmission.
 As it is in Radiative mode, most of the Power was wasted and has less efficiency.
 The efficient midrange power transfer concept is Witricity. In this model source and load are in Magnetic resonance so there is no power loss.
Need of Witricity:
Now a days there is a Rapid development of autonomous electronics like Laptops, Cell-phones, House-hold robots and all those devices typically rely on chemical energy storage(Battery) As they are becoming daily needs to present generation, Wire less energy transfer would be useful for many applications as above and they need midrange energy.
Basic Principle:
The basic principle involved in Witricity concept is, Two objects having same resonating frequency and in Magnetic resonance at Strongly coupled regime tend to exchange energy , while dissipating relatively little energy to the extraneous off-resonant objects.
Experimental Design:
Our experimental scheme consists of two Self-resonant coils. One coil (source coil) is coupled inductively to an oscillating circuit; the other (device coil) is coupled inductively to a resistive load. Self-resonant coils rely on the interplay between distributed inductance and distributed capacitance to achieve resonance.
Range & Rate of Coupling:
Using Coupled Mode Theory (CMT), we can give some frame work to the system. The field system of the two resonant objects 1, 2 is
F(r,t)=a1(t)F1®+a2(t)F2®
Where F1,2® are the resonating modes of 1 and 2 alone, and then the field amplitudes a1(t) and a2(t).The lower order representation of the system is given by :
Where ω1, 2 are the individual frequencies, Γ1, 2 are the Resonance widths (Decay rates) due to the objects’ intrinsic (absorption, radiation etc.) losses, and ‘κ’ is the coupling coefficient .
 The solution of the equation show that at exact resonance at
ω1=ω2 and Γ1=Γ2
the normal modes of the combined system are split by 2κ.
 The energy exchange between the two objects takes place in time Pi/κ and is nearly perfect, apart for losses, which are minimal when the coupling rate is much faster than all loss rates (κ>> Γ1, 2).
 It is exactly this ratio {κ /sqrt (Γ1, 2)} shows that, it will set as figure-of-merit for any system under consideration for wireless energy-transfer, along with the distance over which this ratio can be achieved.
 The desired optimal regime {κ/sqrt (Γ1,2)>>1} is called “Strong-Coupling” regime. There is No change in Energy, unless κ/Γ>>1 is true.
Design of parameters:
The coupled mode theory plays a vital role in solving the lower order equations of the system. Using perturbation technique of
x(t)=A cos(ω 0t)+ B sin(ω 0t)
The solution of this equation is by including decay rate due to loss Γ0
X(t)=C exp(-i ω 0t)exp(-t/ Γ0)
Why the Perturbation technique??
All these fields are by Damped oscillator. The details of the damping mechanism is unknown to us, but the rate of energy loss due to damping known and it is small. So perturbation technique is the approach to solve these equations when the details is unknown to us. To solve the above equation considered a laser cavity and loss rates due to absorption and radiation is taken into account and finally found that κ/Γ ratio is proportional to the quality factor.
Formulation for Simulation:
Consider two loops at distance D between their centers, radius r1 and r2 of conducting wire with circular cross-section of radius ‘a’ and diameter ‘d’.via a dielectric of relative permittivity ε and everything surrounded by air.
To calculate the RLC parameters used the method called Finite-Element Frequency-Domain (FEFD) simulations (for Maxwell’s equations solving purpose) and Perturbation methods, we get the following formulae.
Simulation model Using COMSOL:
Simulation Performance:
à By the basic parameters, calculated results and performance given with and Without the External object in between the coils
Advantages:
☼ Unaffected by the day night cycle, weather or seasons.
☼ This is an eco friendly system..
☼ It is boon for the devices which uses midrange power
Limitations:
☼ The resonance condition should be satisfied and if any error exists, there is no possibility of power transfer.
☼ If there is any possibility of very strong ferromagnetic material presence causes low power transfer due to radiation.
29-03-2011, 10:59 AM
Post: #12
RE: witricity full report
Submiited By
A.Murali Krishna


.ppt  WiTricity.ppt (Size: 1.03 MB / Downloads: 218)
Introduction
Wireless+Electricity=WiTricity.

 Transmission of Electrical energy from one object to another object without use of wires is called WiTricity.
 Witricity is based on strong coupling between electromagnetic resonant objects to transfer energy wirelessly between them.
Past &Present
 Nikola Tesla(1856-1943) has done the Wireless power transmission experiments at Wardenclyffe
 In 18 99 he transmitted power wirelessly.
 High frequency current, of a Tesla coil, could light lamps filled with gas (like neon)
 The MIT researchers successfully demonstrated the ability to power a 60 watt light bulb wirelessly,
(Distance of 7 feet) under the guidance of Marin Soljacic.
 Working of Electric Tooth Brush
 Electric tooth brush contains 1 coil and a battery.
 One coil is in the charger .
Splashpower Recharging Mat
 Example For Resonance
 Copper coil
 Wireless power transfer
MIT EXPERIMENT
 two 5-turn copper coils of 60 cm (24 in) diameter,
 Distance Between The Coils :7 Feet(2 M)
 Load :60watt Bulb.
 Efficiancy:45%
 Resonant frequency : 9.9 MHz
 Transfer of energy from Moon to Earth
 Solar power from the satellite is sent to Earth using a microwave transmitter
 Received at a “rectenna” located on Earth
01-04-2011, 11:43 AM
Post: #13
RE: witricity full report
Presented by:
Shilpa gupta


.pptx  shilpa ppt.pptx (Size: 3.78 MB / Downloads: 240)
WITRICITY “The power without wires”
What is wpt?

Conventional energy transfer is done by using wires
The transmission of energy from one place to another without using wires.
Wireless power transfer is made possible by using various techniques
Why not wires?
Electrical energy transfer is through wires.
Most of energy loss is during transmission.
On an average, more than 30%.
In India it exceeds 40%.
Insulator cost is very high in wired transmission.
System becomes highly complex
Problem of power theft.
Why wpt?
Reliable
Efficient
Low maintenance cost
Fast
Can be used for short-range or long-range
TYPES AND TECHNOLOGIES OF W.P.T.
Microwave power transfer
Transfers high power from one place to another. Two places being in line of sight usually
Steps
Electrical energy to microwave energy
Capturing microwaves using rectenna
Microwave energy to electrical energy
5,000 MW Receiving Station (Rectenna), Snohomish, Washington. This station is about a mile and a half long
LASER transmission
LASER is highly directional, coherent
Not dispersed for very long
But, gets attenuated when it propagates through atmosphere
Simple receiver
Photovoltaic cell
Cost-efficient
Advantages of far- field energy transfer
Efficient
Easy
Need for grid, substations etc are reduced
Low maintenance
More effective when transmitting and receiving points are along a line of sight
Can reach the places which are remote
Disadvantages of far–field energy transfer
Radiative
Needs line of sight
Initial cost is high
When LASERs are used,
Conversion is inefficient
Absorption loss is high
When MICROWAVES are used,
Interference may arise
Fried bird effect
How safe is wpt?
Human beings or other objects placed between the transmitter and receiver do not hinder the power transmission
Magnetic fields tend to interact very weakly with the biological tissues of body, and so are not prone to cause any damage to any living beings
13-05-2011, 09:15 AM
Post: #14
RE: witricity full report

.docx  repot jyoti.docx (Size: 1,017.51 KB / Downloads: 204)

.pptx  jyoti.pptx (Size: 1.39 MB / Downloads: 139)

.docx  final ABSTRACT.docx (Size: 81.03 KB / Downloads: 135)
1. INTRODUCTION
Can we imagine the life without electrical wires? From now answer to this question is Yes. The method proposed in the present paper called “WiTricity “will facilitate to Transfer power without using wires. (WiTricity is nothing but wireless electricity. Transmission of electrical energy from one object to another without the use of wires is called as WiTricity. WiTricity will ensure that the cell phones, laptops, iPods and other power hungry devices get charged on their own, eliminating the need of plugging them in. Even better, because of WiTricity some of the devices won't require batteries to operate.)
The efficient midrange power can be transmitted to any device which uses that range of power by the technique used in this WiTricity concept. Now a days there is a Rapid development of autonomous electronics like Laptops, Cell-phones, House-hold robots and all the above devices typically rely on chemical energy storage(Battery) .As they are becoming daily needs to present generation, Wireless energy transfer would be useful for many applications as above and they need midrange energy. This is the main reason to prepare this paper. When two Magnetically Resonating objects at “Strongly coupled” regime tend to exchange energy efficiently by transfer of power in the non-radiating fields. This is the basic principle involved in it. By taking two coils having same magnetic resonance and one is coupled to source and other is coupled to Device. So that the energy transfer is efficient even the air gap between them is high.
This paper describes the basic history of wireless power transmission, what are Magnetic resonance and strongly coupled regime, Experimental design, Range and rate of coupling (coupling calculations) and Design of parameters and Simulation for variation of power with and without the external object between source and load.
The technology used for wireless power transmission is known as WiTricity. Wireless power transmission is not a new idea; Nikola Tesla proposed theories of wireless power transmission in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Tesla's work was impressive, but it did not immediately lead to wide spread practical methods for wireless power transmission. Since then many researchers have developed several techniques for moving electricity over long distances without wires. Some exist only as theories or prototypes, but others are already in use. In 2006 researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology led by Marine Soijacic discovered an efficient way to transfer power between coils separated by a few meters. They have dubbed this technology as WiTricity.
WiTricity is based upon coupled resonant objects. Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently, while not interchanging the surroundings. The researchers demonstrate the ability to transfer 60W with approximately 40% efficiency over distance in excess of 2 meters. Currently the project is looking for power transmission in the range of 100watts. As WiTricity is in the development stage, lots of work is to be done in improving the range of power transmission and efficiency. This chapter provides a literature review of the history of wireless power transfer throughout the last century. All of the methods that have been used to achieve wireless power transfer will be reviewed along with the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The chapter will conclude with a small discussion on issues with wireless power transfer.
2. What’s Happening Today!!!!!
Currently, wired electricity powers nearly everything. It travels through wires in the form of Alternating Current, and powers most of our devices in the form of Direct Current.
In our present electricity generation system we waste more than half of its resources. Especially the transmission and distribution losses are the main concern of the present power technology.
The resistance of the wire used in the electrical grid distribution system causes a loss of 26-30% of the energy generated. This loss implies that our present system of electrical distribution is only 70-74% efficient. We have to think of alternate technology to transmit and distribute the electricity. The transmission of power without wires may be one noble alternative for electricity transmission.
What do you mean by WiTricity!!!
The Transfer of Electricity from one place to another without wires is known as “WiTricity”.
On June 7 ’07, a team of researchers at MIT announced the successful operation of WiTricity concept.
They had lit up a 60W bulb with a power source at a distance of 7 feet(over 2m) with no wires.
Wireless transmission is useful in cases where instantaneous or continuous energy transfer is needed, without connecting wires.
Most common form of wireless power is carried out, using electrodynamic induction, microwaves or lasers
3. The Brain behind WiTricity
Prof. Marin Soljacic from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), is the one who has proved that magnetic coupled resonance can be utilized in order to transfer energy without wires. What's even more interesting is how he came about this idea. Soljacic, just like any of us was fed up of his 'low battery' beeping cell phone and wondered just like any of us if there was a way to get rid of this 'charging problem'.
However, here is where the difference between Soljacic and any of us comes in. He didn't just stand there wondering, instead he tried to figure out if there existed any physical phenomenon which could be of some help. He remembered Michael Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic induction (1831) and used it to come up with WiTricity
4. WiTricity Basics
There are 3 major types of wireless energy transfer:
Short range; Inductive Coupling
Medium range; Resonant Induction
Long range; Electromagnetic Wave Power Transfer
 Short Range Wireless Energy Transmission: Inductive Coupling
What Is Inductive Coupling?
Inductive Coupling is a method for short range wireless energy transfer.
Its range can vary, but it’s often very short.
Because of its short range it usually is used when the device containing the receiver and the device containing the transmitter are touching.
How does Inductive Coupling Work?
Inductive coupling works on the principles of electromagnetism:
When a current (electricity) passes through a wire, it generates a magnetic field perpendicular to the wire.
This effect can be magnified through coiling the wire.
When a wire is in proximity to a magnetic field, it generates a current in that wire.
Transferring energy between wires through magnetic fields is inductive coupling.
Magnetic fields decay quickly , making inductive coupling effective only at very short range
22-06-2011, 10:18 AM
Post: #15
RE: witricity full report

Presented by:
C.PAVANI


.doc  48257849-05091A0460-witricity.doc (Size: 360 KB / Downloads: 145)
ABSTRACT
The objective of this technical report is to provide electrical energy to remote objects without wires. Wireless energy transfer also known as wireless energy transmission is the process that takes place in any system where electromagnetic energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load, without interconnecting wires. Wireless transmission is employed in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible.
The principle of wireless electricity works on the principle of using coupled resonant objects for the transfer of electricity to objects without the use of any wires. A witricity system consists of a witricity transmitter and another device called the receiver.
The receiver works on the same principle as radio receivers where the device has to be in the range of the transmitter. It is with the help of resonant magnetic fields that witricity produces electricity, while reducing the wastage of power. The present report on witricity aims at power transmissions in the range of 100 watts. May be the products using WiTricity in future might be called Witric or Witric's.
CHAPTER 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO WITRICITY:

WITRICITY is a term which describes wireless energy transfer, the ability to provide electrical energy to remote objects without wires. Wireless energy transfer also known as wireless energy transmission is the process that takes place in any system where electromagnetic energy is transmitted from a power source (such as a Tesla coil) to an electrical load, without interconnecting wires. Wireless transmission is employed in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. Though the physics can be similar (pending on the type of wave used), there is a distinction from electromagnetic transmission for the purpose of transferring information (radio), where the amount of power transmitted is only important when it affects the integrity of the signal.
Electricity is today a necessity of modern life. It is difficult to imagine passing a day without electricity. The conventional use of electricity is made possible through the use of wires.
The principle of wireless electricity works on the principle of using coupled resonant objects for the transfer of electricity to objects without the use of any wires. A witricity system consists of a witricity transmitter and another device called the receiver.
The receiver works on the same principle as radio receivers where the device has to be in the range of the transmitter. It is with the help of resonant magnetic fields that witricity produces electricity, while reducing the wastage of power. The present project on witricity aims at power transmissions in the range of 100 watts. May be the products using WiTricity in future might be called Witric or Witric's.
CHAPTER 2
2.1 WITRICITY TECHNOLOGY:

WiTricity power sources and capture devices are specially designed magnetic resonators that efficiently transfer power over large distances via the magnetic near-field. These proprietary source and device designs and the electronic systems that control them support efficient energy transfer over distances that are many times the size of the sources/devices themselves.
The WiTricity power source, left, is connected to AC power. The blue lines represent the magnetic near field induced by the power source. The yellow lines represent the flow of energy from the source to the WiTicity capture coil, which is shown powering a light bulb. Note that this diagram also shows how the magnetic field (blue lines) can wrap around a conductive obstacle between the power source and the capture device.
2.2 COUPLED RESONATORS:
To achieve wireless power transfer in a way that is practical and safe, one needs to use a physical phenomenon that enables the power source and the device (in this case, the mobile phone) to exchange energy strongly, while interacting only weakly with living beings and other environmental objects, like furniture and walls. The phenomenon of coupled resonators precisely fits this description. Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently, while interacting weakly with extraneous off-resonant objects. A child on a swing is a good example of a resonant system. A swing exhibits a type of mechanical resonance, so only when the child pumps
her leg at the natural frequency of the swing is she able to impart substantial energy into the motion of the swing.
09-07-2011, 02:23 PM
Post: #16
RE: witricity full report

.docx  report.docx (Size: 1.9 MB / Downloads: 222)
Introduction
Now a days electricity has become the cup of life. A moment without electricity makes your thinking go dry. The major source of conventional form of electricity is through wires. The continuous research and development has brought forward a major breakthrough, which provides electricity without the medium of wires. This wonder baby is called Witricity. There are certain small but very useful discoveries made in history, which changed the world for ever, Newton’s gravitational law, Watt’s steam engine, Thomson’s bulb and many more. But a renaissance occurred with the invention of Electromagnetic Waves by Maxwell. Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose successfully generated electromagnetic waves having wavelength in the range of 5mm to 25 mm. Thereafter an Italian scientist named Marconi succeeded in transmitting electromagnetic waves up to a distance of several miles. And with this there started a new era called WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY. Today, as we can see the word ‘wireless’ is common in day – to – day life. Wireless communication has made the world smaller. Almost each and everything is wireless or cordless. Cordless mouse, cordless keyboard, satellite communication, mobiles, cordless microphones and headphones, wireless internet service i.e. WIFI, etc. And these have definitely increased the standard of living. In fact it dates back to the 19th century, when Nikola Tesla used conduction based systems instead of resonance magnetic fields to transfer wireless power. As it is in Radioactive mode, most of the Power was wasted and has less efficiency. Further, in 2005, Dave Gerding coined the term Witricity which is being used by the MIT researchers today
What is WiTricity?
WiTricity is nothing but wireless electricity. Transmission of electrical energy from one object to another without the use of wires is called as WiTricity. WiTricity will ensure that the cell phones, laptops, iPods and other power hungry devices get charged on their own, eliminating the need of plugging them in. WiTricity technology is transferring electric energy or power over distance without wires. with the basics of electricity and magnetism, and work our way up to the WiTricity technology. Even better, because of WiTricity some of the devices won't enquire batteries to operate. No, this concept of wireless electricity is not new. In fact it dates back to the 19th century, when Nikola Tesla used conduction- based systems instead of resonance magnetic fields to transfer wireless power. Further, in 2005, Dave Gerding coined the term WiTricity which is being used by the MIT researchers today. Moreover, we all are aware of the use of electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) which is quite well known for wireless transfer of information. In addition, lasers have also been used to transmit
energy without wires. However, radio waves are not feasible for power transmissions because the nature of the radiation is such that it spreads across the place, resulting into a large amount of radiations being wasted. And in the case of lasers, apart from requirement of
uninterrupted line of sight (obstacles hinders the transmission process), it is also very dangerous.
The Basics Of Witricity:-
Electricity: The flow of electrons (current) through a conductor (like a wire), or charges through the atmosphere (like lightning). A convenient way for energy to get from one place to another!
Magnetism: A fundamental force of nature, which causes certain types of materials to attract or repel each other. Permanent magnets, like the ones on your refrigerator and the earth’s magnetic field, are examples of objects having constant magnetic fields. Oscillating magnetic fields vary with time, and can be generated by alternating current (AC) flowing on a wire. The strength, direction, and extent of magnetic fields are often represented and visualized by drawings of the magnetic field lines.
Electromagnetism: A term for the interdependence of time-varying electric and
magnetic fields. For example, it turns out that an oscillating magnetic field produces
an electric field and an oscillating electric field produces a magnetic field.
Magnetic Induction: A loop or coil of conductive material like copper, carrying an
alternating current (AC), is a very efficient structure for generating or capturing a
magnetic field. If a conductive loop is connected to an AC power source, it will generate an oscillating magnetic field in the vicinity of the loop. A second conducting loop, brought close enough to the first, may “capture” some portion of that oscillating magnetic field,
which in turn, generates or induces an electric current in the second coil. The current
generated in the second coil may be used to power devices. This type of electrical power transfer from one loop or coil to another is well known and referred to as magnetic induction. Some common examples of devices based on magnetic induction are electric transformers and electric generators.
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