WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS AND SURVEY OF FLUORIDE AFFECTED RURAL AREA OF PANDAVAPURA
WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS AND SURVEY OF FLUORIDE AFFECTED RURAL AREA OF PANDAVAPURA TALUK MANDYA DISTRICT
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Dental disease accounts for more pain, suffering and loss of working hours than almost any other disease. And yet, since no one dies as a result of dental disease and since loss of teeth is still regarded incorrectly as a normal consequence of ageing, there has been no large scale emphasis on the preventive aspect of dentistry (1).
The major dental disease responsible for causing the above problem is dental caries. As dental caries is so commonly present among the population, particularly in children under the age sixteen, it is regarded as an inevitable part of life. In fact it is one of the most common disease in the world (2).
The other major dental disease which has received widespread attention is dental fluorosis. This disease affects the permanent detention and only rarely is deciduous teeth involved. At fluoride levels greater than 4.5 to 5.5 mg/l, lustreless white patches are liable to occur on the the surface of the teeth, together with some yellow or brown staining. In some cases, pitting may be present due to the loss of enamel. Dental fluorosis is an insidious disease which afflicts almost all the population which are dependent upon underground sources of drinking water. The tragedy of this disease is that it progressively cause pain to people, both physically and mentally over a long period of time, in its different manifestation (2).
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
i. To analyze the water quality parameters of water sources used for domestic purpose in the selected villages of Pandavapura taluk, Mandya district.
ii. To consolidate the number of cases of fluoride whether related dental caries or dental fluorosis in selected villages of Pandavapura taluk, Mandya district by conducting a survey in the region.
iii. To establish the relationship between fluoride related cases and water source used, age, personal habits, oral hygiene practised, socio-economic nutritional status and history of the disease.
iv. To create an awareness among the rural people regarding dental hygiene and health.
ORGANIZATION OF THESIS
First chapter contains the brief introduction about the project work and the objective of the present study.
Second chapter contains the relevant literature for fluoride related diseases and drinking water quality standards suggested by different agencies. In addition, this chapter presents the health effects related to the fluoride content.
Third chapter presents the details of study area, the sampling programme, sampling techniques, and procedures adopted.
In fourth chapter, results of fluoride content present in the water sample study. Also the water quality parameters of the samples.
In the last chapter, conclusions are drawn based on the result obtained in the present study and also recommendations have been given based on the present study.
THEORY OF DENTAL DISEASES
Physiology of Fluorides
Fluorine is an element that virtually never occurs in nature in its free, gaseous form. In the form of Fluorides. However, it is one of the most plentiful and widespread of elements, standing seventeenth in order of abundance in the earth’s crust. Fluorides occurs in water, soil, rocks, dust, volcanic gases and the atmosphere. They are also present in most foods, mango plants and virtually all animal tissues. Fluoride has an atomic weight of 19.0. Fluorine stands in the ninth place in the periodic table and is one of the most electro-negative and active of all elements. Almost every foodstuff consists at least a trace of Fluorides but the total intake from solid food is relatively small and amounts to only about 0.5 to 1.0 mg/day. Tea contains more Fluoride than any other dietary item in Britain. The amount ranges from 1.0 to 3.0 mg/l (2)
The world’s Fluoride stores in the soil are estimated to be 85 million tons, of which nearly 12 million tons are located in India (9).
Toxicology of Fluoride
Fluorides exert a toxic effect in humans in three forms:
1. Effects on Bones.
2. Effect on Teeth
3. Acute Fluoride poisoning.
The major effect on bone is Skeletal Fluorosis, a condition where bones are extremely calcified and resemble ankylosing spondylitis. The bones are deformed and are osteosclerotic. They are much larger than normal bones but have very little strength. Hence the person may suffer spontaneous factures and usually becomes hunchbacked. This condition can develop when water Fluoride levels exceed 8 mg/l (14).
Acute Fluoride poisoning occurs when a single large dose of Fluoride is ingested. The actual lethal dose of Fluoride for man is probably about 5 gm of Sodium Fluoride (which yield 2.2 gF). It is obviously impossible for fluoridated water ever to cause acute Fluoride poisoning. Thus, in order to receive even 1 gF, one would have to consume, over a very short period of time, 1000 litres of water.
Dental Fluorosis is a specific disturbance of tooth formation caused by excessive Fluoride intake. It is characterised clinically by lustreless, opaque, white patches in the enamel which may become mottled, striated and/or pitted. The mottled areas may become stained yellow and brown. The affected teeth may show a pronounced accentuation of the perikymata, or have multiple pits. Hypoplastic areas may also be present to such an extent in severe cases, that the normal tooth from is lost (15).The way in which Fluoride might exert its effect has been studies principally using chemical and histopathological techniques. An observation of great theoretical interest is that although the outermost layer of the shark’s teeth contains more than a hundred times the fluoride content of human Mottled Enamel, there is no signs of disturbance in its mineralisation. This suggests that the epithelial enamel organ of human teeth demonstrate specific sensitivity to Fluorides (WHO, 1970).
SELECTION OF STUDY AREA
In 1983-84, the Govt., of Karnataka embarked on an ambitious programme to provide drinking water supply to all the villages in rural Karnataka. The above scheme was implemented by a minister Mr.Nazeer Saab. Following this, report of increased incidence of fluoride related diseases came in from doctors at primary health centers (PHC’s) in many taluks and districts. One such report, from Pandavapura taluk caught our attention. On March 2012, we visited Pandavapura taluk on a preliminary survey. The doctors in the PHC have provided us with data regarding the number of cases treated during the past year. We also visited 22 sampling points in the villages of Chikkaboganahalli, Byatarayanakoppalu, Illenaalli, Ashoknagar, Singapura, Maramahalli, Nalenahalli and carried out an examination of the people with help of doctors.