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17-01-2010, 02:45 PM
Post: #1
Big Grin touch screen technology report and ppt
my id devuvishwakarma31[at]gmail.com
18-01-2010, 05:18 PM
Post: #2
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt
touch screen technology
Abstract:
A touchscreen is a display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area, generally refers to touch or contact to the display of the device by a finger or hand. touchscreen is also an input device. The screens are sensitive to pressure; a user interacts with the computer by touching pictures or words on the screen,Touchscreens can also sense other passive objects, such as a stylus, The touchscreen has two main attributes. First, it enables one to interact with what is displayed directly on the screen, where it is displayed, rather than indirectly with amouse or touchpad. Secondly, it lets one do so without requiring any intermediate device, again, such as a stylus that needs to be held in the hand. Such displays can be attached to computers or, as terminals, to networks. They also play a prominent role in the design of digital appliances such as the personal digital assistant (PDA),satellite navigation devices, mobile phones, and video games


Technologies
There are a number of types of touchscreen technology available now

1.Resistive
A resistive touchscreen panel is composed of several layers, the most important of which are two thin, metallic, electrically conductive layers separated by a narrow gap. When an object, such as a finger, presses down on a point on the panel's outer surface the two metallic layers become connected at that point: the panel then behaves as a pair of voltage dividers with connected outputs. This causes a change in the electrical current which is registered as a touch event and sent to the controller for processing. In another way The resistive system consists of a normal glass panel that is covered with a conductive and a resistive metallic layer. These two layers are held apart by spacers, and a scratch-resistant layer is placed on top of the whole setup. An electrical current runs through the two layers while the monitor is operational. When a user touches the screen, the two layers make contact in that exact spot. The change in the electrical field is noted and the coordinates of the point of contact are calculated by the computer. Once the coordinates are known, a special driver translates the touch into something that the operating system can understand, much as a computer mouse driver translates a mouse's movements into a click or a drag.

2.Surface acoustic wave
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sumit technology uses ultrasonic waves that pass over the touchscreen panel. When the panel is touched, a portion of the wave is absorbed. This change in the ultrasonic waves registers the position of the touch event and sends this information to the controller for processing. Surface wave touch screen panels can be damaged by outside elements. Contaminants on the surface can also interfere with the functionality of the touchscreen,an din surface acoustic wave system, two transducers (one receiving and one sending) are placed along the x and y axes of the monitor's glass plate. Also placed on the glass are reflectors -- they reflect an electrical signal sent from one transducer to the other. The receiving transducer is able to tell if the wave has been disturbed by a touch event at any instant, and can locate it accordingly. The wave setup has no metallic layers on the screen, allowing for 100-percent light throughput and perfect image clarity. This makes the surface acoustic wave system best for displaying detailed graphics (both other systems have significant degradation in clarity).

3.Capacitive
capacitive touchscreen panel consists of an insulator such as glass, coated with a transparent conductor such as indium tin oxide (ITO).[2][3]As the human body is also a conductor, touching the surface of the screen results in a distortion of the local electrostatic field, measurable as a change in capacitance. Different technologies may be used to determine the location of the touch. The location can be passed to a computer running a software application which will calculate how the user's touch relates to the computer software. And in capacitive system, a layer that stores electrical charge is placed on the glass panel of the monitor. When a user touches the monitor with his or her finger, some of the charge is transferred to the user, so the charge on the capacitive layer decreases. This decrease is measured in circuits located at each corner of the monitor. The computer calculates, from the relative differences in charge at each corner, exactly where the touch event took place and then relays that information to the touch-screen driver software. One advantage that the capacitive system has over the resistive system is that it transmits almost 90 percent of the light from the monitor, whereas the resistive system only transmits about 75 percent. This gives the capacitive system a much clearer picture than the resistive system [Image: 9995d1234854311-touch-screen-technology-...nology.jpg]


4.Surface capacitance
In this basic technology, only one side of the insulator is coated with a conductive layer. A small voltage is applied to the layer, resulting in a uniform electrostatic field. When a conductor, such as a human finger, touches the uncoated surface, a capacitor is dynamically formed. The sensor's controller can determine the location of the touch indirectly from the change in the capacitance as measured from the four corners of the panel. As it has no moving parts, it is moderately durable but has limited resolution, is prone to false signals from parasitic capacitive coupling, and needs calibration during manufacture. It is therefore most often used in simple applications such as industrial controls and kiosks.

5.Projected capacitance
Projected Capacitive Touch (PCT) technology is a capacitive technology which permits more accurate and flexible operation, by etching the conductive layer. An XY array is formed either by etching a single layer to form a grid pattern of electrodes, or by etching two separate, perpendicular layers of conductive material with parallel lines or tracks to form the grid (comparable to the pixel grid found in many LCDdisplays).
Applying voltage to the array creates a grid of capacitors. Bringing a finger or conductive stylus close to the surface of the sensor changes the local electrostatic field. The capacitance change at every individual point on the grid can be measured to accurately determine the touch location.[5] The use of a grid permits a higher resolution than resistive technology and also allows multi-touch operation. The greater resolution of PCT allows operation without direct contact, such that the conducting layers can be coated with further protective insulating layers, and operate even under screen protectors, or behind weather and vandal-proof glass.
PCT is used in a wide range of applications including point of sale systems, smartphones, and public information kiosks. Visual Planet's ViP Interactive Foil is an example of a kiosk PCT product, where a gloved hand can register a touch on a sensor surface through a glass window.[6]Examples of consumer devices using projected capacitive touchscreens include Apple Inc.'s iPhone and iPod Touch, HTC's HD2, G1, and HTC Hero, Motorola's Droid, Palm Inc.'s Palm Pre and Palm Pixi and more recently the LG KM900 Arena, Microsoft's Zune HD, Sony Walkman X series, Sony Ericsson's Aino and now Vidalco's Edge, D1 and Jewel, and the Nokia X6 phone.

6.Infrared
Conventional optical-touch systems use an array of infrared (IR) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on two adjacent bezel edges of a display, with photosensors placed on the two opposite bezel edges to analyze the system and determine a touch event. The LED and photosensor pairs create a grid of light beams across the display. An object (such as a finger or pen) that touches the screen interrupts the light beams, causing a measured decrease in light at the corresponding photosensors. The measured photosensor outputs can be used to locate a touch-point coordinate.
Widespread adoption of infrared touchscreens has been hampered by two factors: the relatively high cost of the technology compared to competing touch technologies and the issue of performance in bright ambient light. This latter problem is a result of background light increasing the noise floor at the optical sensor, sometimes to such a degree that the touchscreenâ„¢s LED light cannot be detected at all, causing a temporary failure of the touch screen. This is most pronounced in direct sunlight conditions where the sun has a very high energy distribution in the infrared region.
However, certain features of infrared touch remain desirable and represent attributes of the ideal touchscreen, including the option to eliminate the glass or plastic overlay that most other touch technologies require in front of the display. In many cases, this overlay is coated with an electrically conducting transparent material such as ITO, which reduces the optical quality of the display. This advantage of optical touchscreens is extremely important for many device and display vendors since devices are often sold on the perceived quality of the user display experience.
Another feature of infrared touch which has been long desired is the digital nature of the sensor output when compared to many other touch systems that rely on analog-signal processing to determine a touch position. These competing analog systems normally require continual re-calibration, have complex signal-processing demands (which adds cost and power consumption), demonstrate reduced accuracy and precision compared to a digital system, and have longer-term system-failure modes due to the operating environment.

7.Strain gauge
In a strain gauge configuration, also called force panel technology, the screen is spring-mounted on the four corners and strain gauges are used to determine deflection when the screen is touched. This technology has been around since the 1960s but new advances by Vissumo and F-Origin have made the solution commercially viable. It can also measure the Z-axis and the force of a person's touch. Such screens are typically used in exposed public systems such as ticket machines due to their resistance to vandalism.

8.Optical imaging
A relatively-modern development in touchscreen technology, two or more image sensors are placed around the edges (mostly the corners) of the screen. Infrared backlights are placed in the camera's field of view on the other sides of the screen. A touch shows up as a shadow and each pair of cameras can then be triangulated to locate the touch or even measure the size of the touching object (see visual hull). This technology is growing in popularity, due to its scalability, versatility, and affordability, especially for larger units.
[edit]Dispersive signal technology
Introduced in 2002 by 3M, this system uses sensors to detect the mechanical energy in the glass that occurs due to a touch. Complex algorithms then interpret this information and provide the actual location of the touch.[10] The technology claims to be unaffected by dust and other outside elements, including scratches. Since there is no need for additional elements on screen, it also claims to provide excellent optical clarity. Also, since mechanical vibrations are used to detect a touch event, any object can be used to generate these events, including fingers and stylus. A downside is that after the initial touch the system cannot detect a motionless finger.

9.Acoustic pulse recognition
This system, introduced by Tyco International's Elo division in 2006, uses more than two piezoelectric transducers located at some positions of the screen to turn the mechanical energy of a touch (vibration) into an electronic signal.[11] The screen hardware then uses an algorithm to determine the location of the touch based on the transducer signals. This process is similar to triangulation used in GPS. The touchscreen itself is made of ordinary glass, giving it good durability and optical clarity. It is usually able to function with scratches and dust on the screen with good accuracy. The technology is also well suited to displays that are physically larger. As with the Dispersive Signal Technology system, after the initial touch, a motionless finger cannot be detected. However, for the same reason, the touch recognition is not disrupted by any resting objects.
10.Coded LCD: Bidirectional Screen
A new system that turns LCD displays into giant cameras that provide gestural control of objects on-screen [12] was introduced by MIT Media Lab in December, 2009. Instead of an LCD, an array of pinholes is placed in front of sensors. Light passing through each pinhole strikes a small block of sensors producing a low-resolution image. Since each pinhole image is taken from a slightly different position, all combined images provide a good depth information about the sensed image.
Pinholes are problematic because they allow very little light to reach the sensors, requiring impractically long exposure times. Instead of pinholes, an array of liquid crystals could work similarly but more effectively: The LCD's panel is composed of patterns of 19-by-19 blocks, each divided into a regular pattern of differently sized black-and-white rectangles. Each white area of the bi-colored pixels allows light to pass through. Background software uses 4D light fields to calculate depth map, changes the scene, and collects gesture information. The LCD alternates between mask pattern display and a normal scene display at a very high frequency/rate.


For more read this links
http://www.i-techcompanytouchscreen.html
http://en.wikipediawiki/Touchscreen

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11-02-2010, 09:10 PM
Post: #3
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt

.doc  Touch Screen Systems.doc (Size: 169.5 KB / Downloads: 2248)

ABSTRACT
TOUCH SCREEN
First computers became more visual, then they took a step further to understand vocal commands and now they have gone a step further and became TOUCHY', that is skin to screen.
A touchscreen is an easy to use input device that allows users to control PC software and DVD video by touching the display screen. A touch system consists of a touch Sensor that receives the touch input, a Controller, and a Driver. The most commonly used touch technologies are the Capacitive & Resistive systems. The other technologies used in this field are Infrared technology, Near Field Imaging & SAW (surface acoustic wave technology). These technologies are latest in this field but are very much expensive.
The uses of touch systems as Graphical User Interface (GUI) devices for computers continues to grow popularity. Touch systems are used for many applications such as ATM's, point-of-sale systems, industrial controls, casinos & public kiosks etc. Touch system is basically an alternative for a mouse or keyboard.
Various companies involved in development of touch systems mainly are Philips, Samsung etc. Even touch screen mobile phones have been developed by Philips.
INTRODUCTION
A touchscreen is an easy to use input device that allows users to control PC software and DVD video by touching the display screen.
A touch system consists of a touch Sensor that receives the touch input, a Controller, and a Driver. The touch screen sensor is a clear panel that is designed to fit over a PC. When a screen is touched, the sensor detects the voltage change and passes the signal to the touch screen controller. The controller that reads & translates the sensor input into a conventional bus protocol (Serial, USB) and a software driver which converts the bus information to cursor action as well as providing systems utilities
As the touch sensor resides between the user and the display while receiving frequent physical input from the user vacuum deposited transparent conductors serve as primary sensing element. Vacuum coated layers can account for a significant fraction of touch system cost. Cost & application parameters are chief criteria for determining the appropriate type determining the system selection. Primarily, the touch system integrator must determine with what implement the user will touch the sensor with & what price the application will support.
Applications requiring activation by a gloved finger or arbitrary stylus such as a plastic pen will specify either a low cost resistive based sensor or a higher cost infra-red (IR) or surface acoustic wave (SAW) system. Applications anticipating bare finger input or amenable to a tethered pen comprises of the durable & fast capacitive touch systems. A higher price tag generally leads to increased durability better optical performance & larger price.
The most commonly used systems are generally the capacitive & resistive systems. The other technologies used in this field are Infrared technology & SAW
(surface acoustic wave technology) these technologies are latest in this field but are very much expensive.
How Does a Touchscreen Work?
A basic touchscreen has three main components: a touch sensor, a controller, and a software driver. The touchscreen is an input device, so it needs to be combined with a display and a PC or other device to make a complete touch input system.

I.TouchSensor
A touch screen sensor is a clear glass panel with a touch responsive surface. The touch sensor/panel is placed over a display screen so that the responsive area of the panel covers the viewable area of the video screen. There are several different touch sensor technologies on the market today, each using a different method to detect touch input. The sensor generally has an electrical current or signal going through it and touching the screen causes a voltage or signal change. This voltage change is used to determine the location of the touch to the screen.
2. Controller
The controller is a small PC card that connects between the touch sensor and the PC. It takes information from the touch sensor and translates it into information that PC can understand. The controller is usually installed inside the monitor for integrated monitors or it is housed in a plastic case Tor external touch add¬ons/overlays. The controller determines what type of interface/connection you will need on the PC. Integrated touch monitors will have an extra cable connection on the back for the touchscreen. Controllers are available that can connect to a Serial/COM port (PC) or to a USB port (PC or Macintosh). Specialized controllers are also available that work with DVD players and other devices.
3.Software Driver
The driver is a software update for the PC system that allows the touchscreen and computer to work together. It tells the computer's operating system how to interpret the touch event information that is sent from the controller. Most touch screen drivers today are a mouse-emulation type driver. This makes touching the screen the same as clicking your mouse at the same location on the screen. This allows the touchscreen to work with existing software and allows new applications to be developed without the need for touchscreen specific programming. Some equipment such as thin client terminals, DVD players, and specialized computer systems either do not use software drivers or they have their own built-in touch screen driver.

Comparing Touch Technologies
Each type of screen has unique characteristics that can make it a better choice for certain applications.
The most widely used touchscreen technologies are the following:

4-Wire Resistive Touchscreens
Touch pressure causes electrical contact between the conductive and resistive layers.
Conductive r
Separators
Resistive layer
4-Wire Resistive touch technology consists of a glass or acrylic panel that is coated with electrically conductive and resistive layers. The thin layers are separated by invisible separator dots. When operating, an electrical current moves through the screen. When pressure is applied to the screen the layers are pressed together, causing a change in the electrical current and a touch event to be registered
4-Wire Resistive type touch screens are generally the most affordable. Although clarity is less than with other touch screen types, resistive screens are very durable and can be used in a variety of environments. This type of screen is recommended for individual, home, school, or office use, or less demanding point-of-sale systems, restaurant systems, etc.
Advantages Disadvantages
¢ High touch resolution ¢ 75 % clarity
¢ Pressure sensitive, works with any ¢ Resistive layers can be damaged by stylus a sharp object
¢ Not affected by dirt, dust, water, or ¢ Less durable then 5-Wire Resistive light technology
¢ Affordable touchscreen technology

Touchscreen Specifications

Touch Type: Screen Sizes: Cable Interface: Touch Resolution: Response Time: Positional Accuracy: Light Transmission: Life Expectancy: Temperature:
Humidity:
Chemical Resistance: Software Drivers:

4-Wire Resistive
12"-20" Diagonal PC Serial/COM Port or USB Port 1024 x1024 10 ms. maximum
3mm maximum error
80% nominal 3 million touches at one point
Operating: -10°Cto 70°C
Storage: -30°C to 85°C Pass 40 degrees C, 95% RH for 96 hours.
Alcohol, acetone, grease, and general household detergent
Windows XP / 2000 / NT / ME / 98 / 95, Linux, Macintosh OS


5-Wire Resistive Touchscreens
5-Wire Resistive touch technology consists of a Mu«MPe?«"tricai T~ St^nt glass or acrylic panel that is coated with electrically
contact between j coating _
the conductive I Conri.JCtiVfi conductive and resistive layers. The thin layers are
and resistive
layers. separated by invisible separator dots. When operating, an
layer Glass
Separators
Resist,ve electrical current moves through the screen. When pressure
is applied to the screen the layers are pressed together, panRi causing a change in the electrical current and a touch event
- CRT
to be registered.
5-Wire Resistive type touch screens
are generally more durable than the similiar 4-Wire Resistive type. Although clarity is less
than with other touch screen types, resistive screens are very durable and can be used in
a variety of environments. This type of screen is recommended for demanding point-of-
sale systems, restaurant systems, industrial controls, and other workplace applications.
Advantages Disadvantages
¢ High touch resolution ¢ 75 % clarity
¢ Pressure sensitive, works with any ¢ Resistive layers can be damaged
stylus by a sharp object
¢ Not affected by dirt, dust, water, or
light
¢ More durable then 4-Wire Resistive
technology
Touchscreen Specifications
Touch Type: 5-Wire Resistive
Cable Interface: PC Serial/COM Port or USB Port
Touch Resolution: 4096x4096
Response Time: 21 ms.
Light Transmission: 80% +/-5% at 550 nm wavelength (visible light
spectrum)
Expected Life: 35 million touches at one point
Temperature: Operating: -10°Cto 50°C
Storage: -40°C to 71 °C
Humidity: Operating: 90% RH at max 35°C
Storage: 90% RH at max 35°C for 240
Chemical Resistance: Acetone, Methylene chloride. Methyl ethyl ketone , Isopropyl
alcohol, Hexane, Turpentine, Mineral spirits, Unleaded Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, Motor Oil,

Transmission Fluid, Antifreeze, Ammonia based glass cleaner, Laundry Detergents, Cleaners (Formula 409, etc.), Vinegar, Coffee, Tea, Grease, Cooking Oil, Salt
Software Drivers: Windows XP, 2000, NT, ME, 98, 95, 3.1, DOS, Macintosh OS,
Linux, Unix (3rd Party)
Capacitive Touchscreens


Capacitive Technology
-How A Wonts

2. Electrodes are spread uniformly across the field
3, Touch of finger draws current from each skte proportionally

A capacitive touch screen consists of a glass panel with a capacitive (charge storing) material coating its surface. Circuits located at corners of the screen measure the capacitance of a person touching the overlay. Frequency changes are measured to determine the X and Y coordinates of the touch event.
Capacitive type touch screens are very durable, and have a high clarity. They are used in a wide range of applications, from restaurant and POS use to industrial controls and information kiosks.


Advantages Disadvantages
¢ High touch resolution ¢ Must be touched by finger, will not work with
¢ High image clarity any non-conductive input
¢ Not affected by dirt, grease, moisture.
Touch screen Specifications
Touch Type: Capacitive
Cable Interface: PC Serial/COM Port (9-pin) or USB Port
Touch Resolution: 1024x 1024
Light Transmission: 88% at 550 nm wavelength (visible light spectrum)
Durability Test: 100,000,000 plus touches at one point
Temperature: Operating: -15°C to 50°C
Storage: -50°C to 85°C
Humidity: Operating: 90% RH at max40°C, non-condensing
Chemical Resistance: The active area of the touchscreen is resistant to all chemicals
that do not affect glass, such as: Acetone, Toluene, Methyl ethyl ketone, Isopropyl
alcohol, Methyl alcohol, Ethyl acetate, Ammonia-based glass cleaners, Gasoline,
Kerosene, Vinegar
Software Drivers: Windows XP, 2000, NT, ME, 98, 95, 3.1, DOS,
Macintosh OS, Linux, Unix (3rd Party)
PenTouch Capacitive Touchscreens
PenTouch Capacitive touchscreen technology works with the CRT and LCD touch
monitors. This screen combines durable Capacitive technology with a tethered pen stylus.
The screen can be set to respond to finger input only, pen input only, or both. The pen
stylus is a good choice for signature capture, on-screen annotations, or for applications
requiring precise input.

Surface Acoustic Wave Touchscreens

1
I
Reflectors
T transducer
Surface Acoustic Wave technology is one of the most advanced touch screen types. It is based on sending acoustic waves across a clear glass panel with a series of transducers and reflectors. When a finger touches the screen, the waves are absorbed, causing a touch event to be detected at that point. Because the panel is all glass there are no layers that can be worn, giving this technology the highest durability factor and also the highest clarity. This technology is recommended for public information kiosks, computer based training, or other high traffic indoor environments.

Advantages

Disadvantages

High touch resolution Highest image clarity All glass panel, no coatings or layers that can wear out or damage

Must be touched by finger, gloved hand, or soft-tip stylus. Something hard like a pen won't work
Not completely sealable, can be affected by large amounts of dirt, dust, and / or water in the environment.


Near Field Imaging Touchscreens
NFI is one of the newest technologies. It consists of two laminated glass sheets with a patterned coating of transparent metal oxide in between. An AC signal is applied to the patterned conductive coating, creating an electrostatic field on the surface of the screen.

When the finger or glove or other conductive stylus comes into contact with the sensor, the electrostatic field is disturbed. It is an extremely durable screen that is suited for use in industrial control systems and other harsh environments. The NFI type screen is not affected by most surface contaminants or scratches. Responds to finger or gloved hand.
Infrared Touchscreens
Infrared touch screen monitors are based on light-beam interruption technology. A frame surrounds the display's surface. The frame has light sources, or light-emitting diodes (LEDs).on one side, and light detectors on the opposite side. This design creates an optical grid across the screen. When any object touches the screen, the invisible light beam is interrupted, causing a drop in the signal received by the photo sensors. One concern with this technology is that it might respond to a very light touch, even that of an insect crossing the monitor, making unwanted system adjustments. This is the only type of touch technology that are available for large displays such as 42-inch Plasma screens. It is a durable technology that offers high image clarity. Responds to any input device or stylus.
Information Kiosk Systems
A Kiosk (pronounced key-osk) is a computer based terminal or display that is used to provide information or services, typically in a public place. Kiosk systems are being used in a variety of applications, including information directories, customer self-service terminals, electronic catalogs, internet access terminals, tourism guides, and more.

Complete Kiosk Systems
Several affordable and easy to use kiosk enclosures are available with integrated touch screen monitors. Available with several of the leading touchscreen technologies and with a variety of laminate, stained oak, and painted metal finishes.


Mountable Monitors for Kiosk Systems
A variety of mountable displays that can be used in kiosk applications, including mountable CRT monitors and several types of mountable flat panel monitors are available.
Other Components for Kiosk Systems
A variety of hardware components that can be used in information kiosk systems, including mountable printer, fan, and speaker grills are available.
Software for Kiosk Systems
Several software packages can be used in a kiosk environment, including a presentation development package and an on-screen keyboard package.

Software, Cables, and Accessories
Software:
Touchscreen related software, including presentation development software and other utilities

1. MYTSOFT
My-T-Soft On-Screen Keyboard Software
2. RIGHTTOUCH
RightTouch Right-Click
Utility Software


MYTSOFT
My-T-Soft On-Screen Keyboard Software
My-T-Soft is an On-Screen keyboard utility that works with any Windows 95 / 98 / Me / NT / 2000 / XP software. It provides on-screen keyboards and user programmable buttons that allow users to enter data using a touchscreen display.
My-T-Soft can be used by itself in home or workplace applications, and it includes a developer's kit that allows the keyboard to be called up from Web pages and other programs By allowing systems to operate without the need for a physical keyboard, external templates, membranes, or buttons, My-T-Soft can provide the finishing touch on sealed systems that only require a touchscreen for user input.
My-T-Soft uses a concept called "Heads Up Display" technology and its principal objective is to keep the users focus and concentration centered in one place. My-T-Soft uses that concept to reduce the visual re-focusing and re-positioning caused by the head's up and down motion of going from screen to keyboard to screen.
Features:
Over 40 "Heads-Up Display" Keyboards with 12 base sizes and infinitely larger sizes
ABCD Alphabetical, QWERTY, 3 DVORAK'S, and over 40
International (German, Spanish, French, etc.) with Edit and Numeric panels.
Store up to 2000 keystrokes/menu selections (or the applications macro scripts) on each
button. Up to 15 buttons can be grouped on individual Panels, which auto-open when
their assigned application becomes active.
Developer friendly
Show & Hide keys, program keys in Key Options, Custom logo display, Operator mode, on-demand functionality. The Developer's Kit comes with all kinds of utilities, source code, sample code, and a wealth of information for integrating My-T-Soft with your own application. Assignable Functions for Pointing Device Buttons
RIGHTTOUCH RightTouch Right-Click Utility Software
An easy interface to bring Right Click capability to any touchscreen.
Most touchscreens work by emulating left mouse button clicks, so that touching the screen is the same as clicking your left mouse button at that same point on the screen. But what if you need to right click on an item? Some touchscreens do include right click support, but many do not. The Right Touch utility provides an easy way to perform right clicks with any touchscreen.
The Right Touch utility places a button on your desktop that allows you to switch the touchscreen between left and right clicks. When the screen is emulating left clicks, simply touch the Right Touch button to change to right click mode. Touch again, and you're back to the standard left click.
Software Requirements
W indows95/98/M E/NT/2000/XP
Note: Many of the touchscreen systems include a similar right-click tool with their software driver. The Right-Touch software is useful for touchscreens that do not have an included right click utility.
Cables:

Cables for use with the touch monitors, includes video and serial port extension cables. Serial Cables
SERIAL25: 25-Foot Serial Extension Cable SERIAL50: 50-Foot Serial Extension Cable SERIAL100: 100-Foot Serial Extension
VGA Video Cables
VGA25: 25-Foot VGA Extension Cable VGA50: 50-Foot VGA Extension Cable VGA100:100-Foot VGA Extension Cable
VGA-Y: VGA Video Y-Splitter Cable
Accessories:
Stylus Pens

A stylus pen can be used along with our touchscreen systems for precise input.
STYLUS1
Stylus Pen for Resistive Touchscreens
^^^STYLUS2
Stylus Pen for Surface Acoustic Wave Touchscreens
Touch Screen Drivers UPD Driver 3.5.18
These drivers are for 3M Dynapro SC3 and SC4 Controllers The new UPD Driver will work for the following controllers: SC3 Serial, SC4 Serial, SC4 USB. Supported platforms are Win2000/WinNT/Win9x/Me/XP. DOS and other drivers
Linux Drivers for SC3 and SC4 Controllers
Linux drivers for SC3 and SC4 were developed by a third party, not 3M Touch Systems, and are provided for our customers convenience. 3M Touch Systems cannot offer any warranty or technical support for them.
Linux Drivers
TouchWare Driver, Release 5.63 SR3
These drivers are for MicroTouch Touch Controllers (EXII, SMT3, MT3000, MT410, MT510)
This release improves performance for Windows XP drivers. It provides multiple monitor support, including dual head video adapters, from TouchWare 5.63. Supported platforms are WinXP/Win2000/WinNT/Win9x/Me.
This service release also corrects known problems with silent installation. Microcal 7.1
Use this utility to modify controller settings and to calibrate the sensor at different resolutions under DOS. Microcal is compatible with fully-integrated ClearTek capacitive and TouchTek resistive touchscreens. This release supports any serial and PS/2 SMT controller, PC BUS controllers and the MT400 controller.
Near Field Imaging OEM Drivers
Use the OEM drivers below with Near Field Imaging touch screen products.
For Windows NT/9X:
8.4-inch Near Field Imaging touch screens (approx. 2.5MB) For Windows NT/9X/3.1 and MS-DOS:
10.4-inch and larger Near Field Imaging touch screens (approx> 3.6MB)
For Windows XP/2000 for 10.4-inch and larger Near Field Imaging touch screens Linux Drivers for NFI
Linux drivers for NFI were developed by a third party, not 3M Touch Systems, and are provided for our customers' convenience. 3M Touch Systems cannot offer any warranty or technical support for them.
APPLICATIONS
The touch screen is one of the easiest PC interfaces to use, making it the interface of choice for a wide variety of applications. Here are a few examples of how touch input systems are being used today:
1. Public Information Displays
Information kiosks, tourism displays, trade show displays, and other electronic displays are used by many people that have little or no computing experience. The user-friendly touch screen interface can be less intimidating and easier to use than other input devices, especially for novice users. A touchscreen can help make your information more easily accessible by allowing users to navigate your presentation by simply touching the display screen
2. Retail and Restaurant Systems
Time is money, especially in a fast paced retail or restaurant environment. Touchscreen systems are easy to use so employees can get work done faster, and training time can be reduced for new employees. And because input is done right on the screen, valuable counter space can be saved. Touchscreens can be used in cash registers, order entry stations, seating and reservation systems, and more
3. Customer Self-Service
In today's fast pace world, waiting in line is one of the things that has yet to speed up. Self-service touch screen terminals can be used to improve customer service at busy stores, fast service restaurants, transportation hubs, and more. Customers can quickly place their own orders or check themselves in or out, saving them time, and decreasing wait times for other customers. Automated bank teller (ATM) and airline e-ticket terminals are examples of self-service stations that can benefit from touchscreen input.
4. Control and Automation Systems
The touch screen interface is useful in systems ranging from industrial process control tc home automation. By integrating the input device with the display, valuable workspace can be saved. And with a graphical interface, operators can monitor and control complex operations in real-time by simply touching the screen.
4. Computer Based Training
Because the touch screen interface is more user-friendly than other input devices, overa training time for computer novices, and therefore training expense, can be reduced. It can also help to make learning more fun and interactive, which can lead to a more beneficia training experience for both students and educators.
5. Assistive Technology
The touch screen interface can be beneficial to those that have difficulty using other input devices such as a mouse or keyboard. When used in conjunction with software such as on-screen keyboards, or other assistive technology, they can help make computing resources more available to people that have difficulty using computers.
ADVANTAGES OVER OTHER POINTING DEVICES
Touch screens have several advantages over other pointing devices;
¢ Touching a visual display of choices requires little thinking and is a form of direct manipulation that is easy to learn.
¢ Touch screens are the fastest pointing devices.
¢ Touch screens have easier hand eye coordination than mice or keyboards.
¢ No extra work space is required as with other pointing devices.
¢ Touch screens are durable in public access and in high volume usage.
Disadvantages
¢ User's hand may obscure the screen.
¢ Screens need to be installed at a lower position and tilted to reduce arm fatigue.
¢ Some reduction in image brightness may occur.
¢ They cost more than alternative devices.
Conclusion
Touch systems represent a rapidly growing subset of the display market. The majority of touch systems include touch sensors relying on vacuum-deposited coatings, so touch coatings present opportunity for suppliers of vacuum coatings and coating equipments.
Touch sensor manufactures currently require thin films in the areas of transparent conductors, optical interference coating and mechanical protective coatings. Touch sensors technical requirements dovetail well with those of the flat panel and display filter markets. The reality should provide value added opportunities to operations participating in these areas.

Bibliography
Computer Graphics
C Version
Websites
http://www.Touchscreens.com
http://www.Abilityhuh.com
http://www.WebopediaTouchscreen
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01-04-2010, 09:02 PM
Post: #4
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt
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03-04-2010, 10:41 PM
Post: #5
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt
Touch Screen Technology

Presented by
Kamal Sharma
History
In 1971, the first "touch sensor" was developed by Doctor Sam Hurst (founder of Elographics) while he was an instructor at the University of Kentucky.
In 1974, the first true touch screen incorporating a transparent surface came on the scene developed by Sam Hurst and Elographics. In 1977, Elographics developed and patented five-wire resistive technology, the most popular touch screen technology in use today.
Introduction
The touch screen is one of the easiest to use and most intuitive of all PC interfaces, making it the interface of choice for a wide variety of applications. A touch interface allows users to navigate a computer system by touching icons or links on the screen.


Introduction (contd.)
A touchscreen is an input device that allows users to operate a PC by simply touching the display screen. Touch input is suitable for a wide variety of computing applications. A touchscreen can be used with most PC systems as easily as other input devices such as track balls or touch pads. Browse the links below to learn more about touch input technology and how it can work for you.


What Are Touchscreens Used For?

Touchscreen systems are being used in a variety of applications, including point-of-sale systems, public information displays, industrial control systems, and more.
A Touch Screen
How Does a Touchscreen Work?
A basic touchscreen has three main components: a touch sensor, a controller, and a software driver. The touchscreen is an input device, so it needs to be combined with a display and a PC or other device to make a complete touch input system.



1. Touch Sensor
A touch screen sensor is a clear glass panel with a touch responsive surface. The touch sensor/panel is placed over a display screen so that the responsive area of the panel covers the viewable area of the video screen. There are several different touch sensor technologies on the market today, each using a different method to detect touch input. The sensor generally has an electrical current or signal going through it and touching the screen causes a voltage or signal change. This voltage change is used to determine the location of the touch to the screen.


2. Controller
The controller is a small PC card that connects between the touch sensor and the PC. It takes information from the touch sensor and translates it into information that PC can understand. The controller is usually installed inside the monitor for integrated monitors or it is housed in a plastic case for external touch add-ons/overlays. The controller determines what type of interface/connection you will need on the PC. Integrated touch monitors will have an extra cable connection on the back for the touchscreen. Controllers are available that can connect to a Serial/COM port (PC) or to a USB port (PC or Macintosh). Specialized controllers are also available that work with DVD players and other devices.


3. Software Driver
The driver is a software update for the PC system that allows the touchscreen and computer to work together. It tells the computer's operating system how to interpret the touch event information that is sent from the controller. Most touch screen drivers today are a mouse-emulation type driver. This makes touching the screen the same as clicking your mouse at the same location on the screen. This allows the touchscreen to work with existing software and allows new applications to be developed without the need for touchscreen specific programming. Some equipment such as thin client terminals, DVD players, and specialized computer systems either do not use software drivers or they have their own built-in touch screen driver.


4-Wire Resistive Touchscreens
4-Wire Resistive touchscreen technology is used in the touch add-ons that we offer for PC monitors and notebooks. It is a reliable and affordable technology that is widely used by individuals and in less demanding workplace applications. It is pressure sensitive so it responds to any input device, including finger, gloved hand, or pen stylus.


5-Wire Resistive Touchscreens

We offer 5-Wire Resistive touchscreen technology with the CRT and LCD touch monitors that we offer. It is a durable and accurate technology that is widely used in demanding workplace applications such as point-of-sale systems, industrial controls, and medical systems. It is pressure sensitive so it responds to any input device, including finger, gloved hand, or pen stylus.


Capacitive Touchscreens
We offer Capacitive touchscreen technology with the CRT and LCD touch monitors that we offer. It is a durable technology that is used in a wide range of applications including point-of-sale systems, industrial controls, and public information kiosks. It has a higher clarity than Resistive technology, but it only responds to finger contact and will not work with a gloved hand or pen stylus.


PenTouch Capacitive Touchscreens
We offer PenTouch Capacitive touchscreen technology with the CRT and LCD touch monitors that we offer. This screen combines durable Capacitive technology with a tethered pen stylus. The screen can be set to respond to finger input only, pen input only, or both. The pen stylus is a good choice for signature capture, on-screen annotations, or for applications requiring precise input. Follow this link for more information.


Surface Acoustic Wave Touchscreens
We offer Surface Acoustice Wave touchscreen technology with the CRT and LCD touch monitors that we offer. It is a very durable screen that is widely used in applications such as computer based training and information kiosk displays. The SAW screen is a good choice for applications where image clarity is important, but it may not perform well in extremely dirty or dusty environments. Responds to finger or soft rubber tipped stylus. Follow this link for more information.


Near Field Imaging Touchscreens
We offer Near Field Imaging touchscreen technology as one of the custom LCD touch monitor solutions that we can provide. It is an extremely durable screen that is suited for use in industrial control systems and other harsh nvironments. The NFI type screen is not affected by most surface contaminants or scratches. Responds to finger or gloved hand. Follow this link for more information.



Infrared Touchscreens


We offer Infrared touchscreen technology with the Plasma display solutions that we offer. This is the only type of touch technology that we have available for large displays such as 42-inch Plasma screens. It is a durable technology that offers high image clarity. Responds to any input device or stylus. Follow this link for more information.


Touchscreen Snapshot
Public Information Displays

Information kiosks, tourism displays, trade show displays, and other electronic displays are used by many people that have little or no computing experience. The user-friendly touch screen interface can be less intimidating and easier to use than other input devices, especially for novice users. A touchscreen can help make your information more easily accessible by allowing users to navigate your presentation by simply touching the display screen.
Retail and Restaurant Systems

Time is money, especially in a fast paced retail or restaurant environment. Touchscreen systems are easy to use so employees can get work done faster, and training time can be reduced for new employees. And because input is done right on the screen, valuable counter space can be saved. Touchscreens can be used in cash registers, order entry stations, seating and reservation systems, and more.


Other uses of Touchscreen


Customer Self-Service
Control and Automation Systems
Computer Based Training
Assistive Technology











Q&A








Thank You!


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11-04-2010, 04:29 PM
Post: #6
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt

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Introduction
A touch screen is a computer display screen that is sensitive to human touch, allowing a user to interact with the computer by touching pictures or words on the screen. Touch screens are used with information kiosks, computer-based training devices, and systems designed to help individuals who have difficulty manipulating a mouse or keyboard. Touch screen technology can be used as an alternative user interface with applications that normally require a mouse, such as a Web browser. Some applications are designed specifically for touch screen technology, often having larger icons and links than the typical PC application. Monitors are available with built-in touch screen technology or individuals can purchase a touch screen kit.
A touch screen kit includes a touch screen panel, a controller, and a software driver. The touch screen panel is a clear panel attached externally to the monitor that plugs into a serial or Universal Serial Bus (USB) port or a bus card installed inside the computer. The touch screen panel registers touch events and passes these signals to the controller. The controller then processes the signals and sends the data to the processor. The software driver translates touch events into mouse events. Drivers can be provided for both Windows and Macintosh operating systems. Internal touch screen kits are available but require professional installation because they must be installed inside the monitor.
History of Touch screen
The first "touch sensor was developed by Dr. Sam Hurst, founder of Elographics, while he was an instructor at the University of Kentucky in 1971. This sensor was called the "Elograph", and was patented by The University of Kentucky Research Foundation. The "Elograph" was not transparent as are touchscreens, but was a significant mile-stone for touch technology.
The first true touch screen came on the scene in 1974, again developed by Dr.Hurst, of Elographics. In 1977, Elographics developed and patented five-wire resistive technology, the most popular touch screen technology in use today. On February 24, 1994, the company officially changed Its name from Elographics to Elo TouchSystems.
Definition
What are Touch Screens
The touch screen is the most user friendly PC interface. It is an input device, a way to communicate with the PC. The user touches the screen to select options presented on the screen. Associated hardware and software are used to determine the location of the press.

Touch Screen
Touch is the easiest to learn and use of any available interface. Businesses both large and small are using touch technology to create new products, reach new markets, increase productivity, and ease the flow of information.
How Does a Touch screen Work
A basic touch screen has three main components: a touch sensor, a controller, and a software driver. The touch screen is an input device, so it needs to be combined with a display and a PC or other device to make a complete touch input system.
1. Touch Sensor
A touch screen sensor is a clear glass panel with a touch responsive surface. The touch sensor/panel is placed over a display screen so that the responsive area of the panel covers the viewable area of the video screen. There are several different touch sensor technologies on the market today, each using a different method to detect touch input. The sensor generally has an electrical current or signal going through it and touching the screen causes a voltage or signal change. This voltage change is used to determine the location of the touch to the screen.
2. Controller
The controller is a small PC card that connects between the touch sensor and the PC. It takes information from the touch sensor and translates it into information that PC can understand. The controller is usually installed inside the monitor for integrated monitors or it is housed in a plastic case for external touch add-ons/overlays. The controller determines what type of interface/connection you will need on the PC. Integrated touch monitors will have an extra cable connection on the back for the touch screen. Controllers are available that can connect to a Serial/COM port (PC) or to a USB port (PC or Macintosh). Specialized controllers are also available that work with DVD players and other devices.
3.Softwaredriver
The driver is a software update for the PC system that allows the touch screen and computer to work together. It tells the computer's operating system how to interpret the touch event information that is sent from the controller. Most touch screen drivers today are a mouse-emulation type driver. This makes touching the screen the same as clicking your mouse at the same location on the screen. This allows the touch screen to work with existing software and allows new applications to be developed without the need for touch screen specific programming.
Why use Touch Screens
Touch is the easiest to learn and use of any available interface. Businesses both large and small are using touch technology to create new products, reach new markets, increase productivity, and ease the flow of information.
Applications of Touch Screens
Common Uses for Touch
Informational kiosks
Trade show displays
Museum / tourism displays
Point-of-sale terminals
Restaurant systems
Employee time clocks
Employee training systems
Industrial process controls
World Wide Web access kiosks
Home automation systems
Casino and other gaming systems
Computer access for the physically disabled
Railway station
Airport
Telephone exchange
Types of Touch Screens
There are a variety of types of touch technology available but the five major ones include analog resistive, capacitive, infrared, acoustic wave and near field imaging. Of these only one may actually be appropriate for your application.
Resistive Touch Screens
Analog resistive touch technology is comprised of a glass overlay that fits exactly to the shape of a flat panel display. The exterior face of the glass is coated with a conductive, transparent layer. A clear, hard coated plastic sheet is then suspended over the glass overlay. The interior face of the plastic sheet is also coated with a conductive layer. Between the glass and the plastic sheet there are thousands of tiny separator dots about one-one thousandth of an inch thick. When a stylus applies pressure to the surface of the display, the two layers make contact and a controller instantly calculates X and Y coordinates. This accounts for resistive overlay's very high touch recognition resolution.
An 8-wire analog resistive touch screen has held up to more than 35 million touches in laboratory environments, although most are officially rated over 1 million touches. These systems can also be sealed to prevent dust or water penetration and meet NEMA 4/12 standards.
Capacitive overlay systems operate by way of a conductive stylus and require the use of the human finger or stylus. It is covered with a coat of transparent metal oxide but the coat is bonded to a single sheet of glass making it susceptible to scratches, which will jeopardize the integrity of the touch screen. A touch on the screen creates a capacitive coupling, drawing an electrical current to the touch point. However, as soon as a glove is placed over the hand, the touch screen is rendered inoperable which eliminates it from being effective in many applications.
The resistive Touch Screen is set up in the following way
Resistive Touch Screens
Formed to fit the shape of a display, the glass panel has a coating of uniform resistivity. A polyester cover sheet is tightly suspended over the top of the glass, separated from it by small, transparent insulating dots. The cover sheet has a hard, durable coating on the outer side and a conductive coating on the inner side. With a light touch, the conductive coating makes electrical contact with the coating on the glass.
The controller circuit applies a voltage gradient across the resistive surface of the glass. The voltages at the point of contact are the analog representation of the position touched. The controller digitizes these voltages and transmits them to the computer for processing.
By using 4 wires, a pair of wires on each layer, both signals of X and Y are registered by the controller. When a touch occurs. The touch point introduces a pair of voltages for X and Y direction. The Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), which is located on the controller, is then converts these voltage positions into digital numbers. The device driver calculates these digital numbers into display (X,Y) coordinate. Puts the mouse cursor onto the (X,Y) coordinate. Also returns the operating system with mouse left-button-down status, and left-button-up status while untouched is occurred.
Five-Wire Technology Four-Wire Technology and
Eight-Wire Technology
Utilizes the bottom substrate for both X- and Y-axis measurements. The flexible coversheet acts only as a voltage-measuring probe. This means the touch screen continues working properly even with non-uniformity in the cover sheet's conductive coating. The result is an accurate, durable and reliable touch screen that offers drift-free operation. Must use two layers to create X- and Y-axis measurements. For the Y-axis, the flexible top coversheet acts as a uniform voltage gradient, while the bottom substrate acts as the voltage probe. The constant flexing that occurs on the outer coversheet will change its electrical characteristics (resistance) with use, degrading the linearity and accuracy of this axis.
Durability
Five-Wire Technology Four-Wire Technology and
Eight-Wire Technology
Tested to over 35 million finger touches with no performance degradation. 1 million-touch life max.
Design Flexibility
Five-Wire Technology Four-Wire Technology and
Eight-Wire Technology
Advanced design allows flat and spherical designs. Not available in spherical designs.
Advantages of Resistive
¢ High Resolution and Accuracy
¢ Fast Response
¢ Pressure-activated by finger or gloved hand with a very light touch
¢ Durable hard-coat front surface can be non glare treated for reflection control or polished for maximum clarity
¢ Touch screens and controllers are safety agency-approved components, so certification of your system is easier
Disadvantages of Resistive
¢ 80 % Clarity
¢ Resistive layers can be damaged by a sharp object
Surface Acoustic Wave Touch Screens
The SAW touch screen is a glass overlay with transmitting and receiving piezoelectric transducers for both the X and Y-axes. The touch screen controller sends a 5 MHz electrical signal to the transmitting transducer, which converts the signal into surface waves. These mechanical waves are directed across the opposite side gather and direct the waves to the receiving transducer, which reconverts them into an electrical signal.
Surface Acoustic Wave Touch Screens
When the front surface of the touch screen is touched, a portion of the mechanical wave is absorbed, thus changing the received signal. The signal is then compared to a stored reference signal, the change recognized, and a coordinate calculated. This process happens independently for both the X and Y-axes. By measuring the amount of the signal that is absorbed, a Z-axis is determined.


Acoustic wave touch screens have transducers that emit ultrasonic sound waves along two sides. Guided acoustic wave (GAW) systems function by the transmission of an acoustic wave through a glass overlay on a display surface, and surface acoustic wave systems (SAW) function by the transmission of an acoustic wave over a glass overlay on a display surface. When an input device, such as a finger, dampens the wave, electronic sensors determine the location of the dampened area, recognizing a touch. SAW touch screen monitors have significant stylus limitations. A stylus is the actual device, which touches the displays screen. These systems require a soft, energy absorbing pressure that would come from a finger. Although the human finger is the most popular stylus, often it is desirable to have a pen-based stylus so the display does not become dirty. In this case, if trying to use a pen, the acoustic wave would not be dampened and no touch would be recognized.
Infrared touch screen monitors are based on light-beam interruption technology.
How the Touch screen Controller Interprets Screen Measurement
When the controller is waiting for a touch, the resistive layer of the touch screen is biased at +5V through four drivelines, and the coversheet is grounded through a high resistance. When the touch screen is not being touched, the voltage on the coversheet is zero. The voltage level of the coversheet is continuously converted by the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and monitored by the microprocessor on the controller.
When the touch screen is touched, the microprocessor detects the rise in the coversheet voltage and begins converting the coordinates as follows:
A The microprocessor places the X drive voltage on the touch screen by applying +5V to pins H and X and grounding pins Y and L. An analog voltage proportional to the X (horizontal) position of the touch appears on the cover sheet at pin S of the touch screen connector. This voltage is digitized by the ADC and subjected to an averaging algorithm, then stored for transmission to the host.
B Next, the microprocessor places the Y drive voltage on the touch screen by applying +5V to pins H and Y and grounding pin X and L. An analog voltage proportional to the Y (vertical position of the touch) now appears on the coversheet at pin S of the touch screen connector. This signal is converted and processed as described above for the X position
Advantages of Surface Acoustic Wave
o Excellent Image Clarity
o Very High Light Transmission
o Excellent Durability
o Stable "No-Drift" Operation
o High Resolution
o Finger or Gloved-Hand Operation
o Very Light Touch
o Fast Touch Response
o X-, Y-, and Z-axis Response
o Overlay That Can Be Antiglare-Treated
Disadvantages of Surface Acoustic Wave
o Must be touched by finger, gloved hand, or soft-tip stylus. Something hard like a pen won't work
o Not completely seal able, can be affected by large amounts of grease, water, or dirt on the touch screen
Capacitive Touch Screens
Capacitive Touch Screens
The touch pad contains a two-layer grid of electrodes that are connected to a sophisticated full-custom mixed signal integrated circuit (IC) mounted on the reverse side of the pad. The upper layer contains vertical electrode strips while the lower layer is composed of horizontal electrode strips. The IC measures "Mutual capacitance" from each of the horizontal electrodes to each of the vertical electrodes. A human finger near the intersection of two electrodes modifies the mutual capacitance between them, since a finger has very different dielectric properties than air. Position of the finger centroid is precisely determined based on these mutual capacitance changes at various locations and can be detected before a finger actually touches the pad.
Capacitive overlay systems operate by way of a conductive stylus and require the use of the human finger or stylus. It is covered with a coat of transparent metal oxide but the coat is bonded to a single sheet of glass making it susceptible to scratches, which will jeopardize the integrity of the touch screen. A touch on the screen creates a capacitive coupling, drawing an electrical current to the touch point. However, as soon as a glove is placed over the hand, the touch screen is rendered inoperable which eliminates it from being effective in many applications.
Advantages of Capacitive
¢ High Touch Resolution
¢ High Clarity
¢ Completely Seal able
Disadvantages of Capacitive
¢ Must be touched by finger- will not work with any non-conductive input
¢ Can be affected by electricity
¢ May need re-calibration often
Comparison of the Different Types
Advantages of Resistive
o High Resolution and Accuracy
o Fast Response
o Pressure-activated by finger or gloved hand with a very light touch
o Durable hard-coat front surface can be no glare treated for reflection control or polished for maximum clarity
o Touch screens and controllers are safety agency-approved components, so certification of your system is easier
Disadvantages of Resistive
¢ 80 % Clarity
¢ Resistive layers can be damaged by a sharp object
Advantages of Surface Acoustic Wave
o Excellent Image Clarity
o Very High Light Transmission
o Excellent Durability
o Stable "No-Drift" Operation
o High Resolution
o Finger or Gloved-Hand Operation
o Very Light Touch
o Fast Touch Response
o X-, Y-, and Z-axis Response
o Overlay That Can Be Antiglare-Treated
Disadvantages of Surface Acoustic Wave
o Must be touched by finger, gloved hand, or soft-tip stylus. Something hard like a pen won't work
o Not completely seal able, can be affected by large amounts of grease, water, or dirt on the touch screen
Comparison Between the Different Types
Type: Resistive*: Acoustic Wave: Capacitive**:
Activation: Pressure sensitive Wave aborption Human body electricity
Antiglare protection: Minimal Medium Clear, Light-Etch, Etched
Clarity: Medium Best Minimal, Medium, Best
Damaged by: Very sharp objects Glass - breakable Glass coating wears out
Can handle dirt: Good Poor Best
Made with: Hardened acrylic plastic Glass with coatings Glass with coatings
Durability (MTBF): 15 million touches 30 million touches 60 million touches
Resolution: 1 million touch points 1 million touch points 1 million touch points
Warranty: 1 Year 3 Years 5 Years
SUMMARY: Best Price Best Clarity Most Durable
Construction of touch screen
Resistive
TOP: Polyester with outside hard surface coating with
polished or no glare finish.
INSIDE: Transparent conductive coating.
BOTTOM: Glass substrate with uniform conductive coating.
Top and bottom are layers separated by separator dots.
Surface Acoustic Wave
Glass panel with transducers are attached to the front surface of the glass.
The SAW touch screen is a glass overlay with transmitting and receiving piezoelectric transducers
Capacitive
The touch pad contains a two-layer of electrodes that are connected to a sophisticated integrated circuit (IC) mounted on the reverse side of the pad. The upper layer contains vertical electrode strips while the lower layer is composed of horizontal electrode strips.
Manufacturing Process
The resistive material for a resistive touch screen is usually made of a thin-film, Nickel -Phosphorous (NiP) alloy. In the manufacturing process, about 0.1 to 0.4 microns of the alloy is electro-deposited onto the rough, or tooth side, of a standard electrodeposited copper foil.
Resistor Conductor Sheet Material
Typical sizes available in the market are 25 ohm per square and 100 ohm per square sheet resistivities at + or - 5% tolerance. Ohms per square is a dimensionless square area of resistive material, the length and width of the resistor being of equal size, having an Ohmic.
Application of Touch screen
The touch screen is one of the easiest PC interfaces to use, making it the interface of choice for a wide variety of applications. Here are a few examples of how touch input systems are being used today:
Public Information Displays
Information kiosks, tourism displays, many people that have little or no computing experience use trade show displays, and other electronic displays. The user-friendly touch screen interface can be less intimidating and easier to use than other input devices, especially for novice users. A touch screen can help make your information more easily accessible by allowing users to navigate your presentation by simply touching the display screen.
Retail and Restaurant Systems
Time is money, especially in a fast paced retail or restaurant environment. Touch screen systems are easy to use so employees can get work done faster, and training time can be reduced for new employees. And because input is done right on the screen, valuable counter space can be saved. Touch screens can be used in cash registers, order entry stations, seating and reservation systems, and more.
Customer Self-Service
In todayâ„¢s fast pace world, waiting in line is one of the things that have yet to speed up. Self-service touch screen terminals can be used to improve customer service at busy stores, fast service restaurants, transportation hubs, and more. Customers can quickly place their own orders or check themselves in or out, saving them time, and decreasing wait times for other customers. Automated bank teller (ATM) and airline e-ticket terminals are examples of self-service stations that can benefit from touch screen input.
Control and Automation Systems
The touch screen interface is useful in systems ranging from industrial process control to home automation. By integrating the input device with the display, valuable workspace can be saved. And with a graphical interface, operators can monitor and control complex operations in real-time by simply touching the screen.
Computer Based Training
Because the touch screen interface is more user-friendly than other input devices, overall training time for computer novices, and therefore training expense, can be reduced. It can also help to make learning more fun and interactive, which can lead to a more beneficial training experience for both students and educators.
Assistive Technology
The touch screen interface can be beneficial to those that have difficulty using other input devices such as a mouse or keyboard. When used in conjunction with software such as on-screen keyboards, or other assistive technology, they can help make computing resources more available to people that have difficulty using computers.
And many more uses...
The touch screen interface is being used in a wide variety of applications to improve human-computer interaction. Other applications include digital jukeboxes, computerized gaming, student registration systems, multimedia software, financial and scientific applications, and more.
Touch Screen Configurations
Touch Controls, Inc. offers the widest range of rugged zed touch screen and highly adaptable operator interface touch technology available anywhere. For example, your application may require:
¢ a daily high pressure caustic wash-down (NEMA 4X/IP 66);
¢ protection against abrasive dust;
¢ the use of harsh chemicals or organic solvents;
¢ outdoor installation with environmental extremes;
¢ withstanding abuse by the general public or vandalism;
¢ special cursor manipulation; or
¢ ability to locate and trigger very small targets.
For all the requirements listed above, and others, Touch Controls, Inc. can provide the right technology to protect your operator interface investment and ensure a long, trouble-free operating life.
Ruggedized Touch Screen Technology
Standard and Special Faceplate Configurations
Based on 15 years of experience in manufacturing the most ruggedized, tamper-resistant touch screens, Touch Controls, Inc. offers a wide range of proven Touch Screen Faceplate Technologies to ensure you receive the best solution that meets the precise demands of your application.
Since Touch Controls, Inc. uses a special, patented form of infrared technology (click here to learn more about our exclusive
EnhancedInfrared„¢ technology), the touch screen configuration and operation can be optimized to your specific needs.
The standard clear faceplate is totally sealed and manufactured to be scratch and impact resistant for exceptionally sharp Images.
Optional faceplate configurations include:
o SealTouch„¢ - Industrial Faceplate - High Impact, seal able to NEMA 4X / IP 66
o TouchGuard„¢ - Changeable Faceplate - High Abrasion and scratch-resistant overlay, designed for dry and abrasive environments. The TouchGuard„¢ allows the user to easily replace a worn faceplate, without dismantling or opening the unit, in as little as 2 minutes.
o CleanTouch„¢ - Tempered Glass Faceplate - Built to withstand Harsh Chemicals, and Organic Solvents.
o SunTouch„¢ - Hot Mirrored Glass Faceplate - Built for outdoor environments, and designed to block 90% of the heat emanating from direct sun radiation. This very special glass protects the liquid crystals of LCD panel from reaching high temperatures and converting to black, when exposed to direct sunlight radiation.
o ToughTouch„¢ - Lined faceplate with high impact resistant thick backing - Designed to withstand the vandalism that may be encountered in a metropolitan subway, or the impact of a baseball bat. The liner can be replaced on site, in less than 10 minutes, by opening the touch screen assembly.
By consulting with a Touch Controls' Application specialist, you will be presented with the optimal solution to your harsh environment interface and computing needs.
Exclusive High Performance Touch Screen Technology
High Resolution Enhanced Infrared„¢
High Resolution Enhanced Infrared„¢ touch screen technology utilizes a tighter grid of infrared light than any other infrared touch screen, which increases the operator's level of control over touch targets and functions. The benefits of this include:
Easier to pinpoint small display targets. Ideal for precision applications such as Internet, mapping or plotting grid coordinates.
Permits the use of a smaller stylus for better "drag and drop" accuracy and more precise touch target control. Provides smoother pixel transition for applications that include handwriting and/or signature recognition, drawing, or connecting points with straight lines or arches.
Extra resolution can be utilized to implement a "Fault Tolerant" system, which will continue to function even if several beams have failed. (The average size finger now covers approximately 25 infrared beams.)
Total external and internal sealing of the LEDs and LRPs up to NEMA 4/4x standards.
Rugged Mechanical Design. High Resolution EnhancedInfrared„¢ technology was developed specifically for use in harsh or demanding environments. The touch screen faceplate is scratch-resistant and shatterproof. Cuts or scratches on the surface of the screen have no effect on the efficiency of the touch screen.
Micropointing„¢
Micropointing„¢ can be ordered as an option for Touch Controls' EnhancedInfrared touch screen.
This technology allows the touch screen user to address every pixel of the display and activate the touch screen only when the cursor is on a selected target, even if the target is very small. In addition, this technology allows the precise adjustment of control sliders.
The Micropointing„¢ touch screen has a number of calibration options that are used only for setting up the desired calibration and operating mode of the touch screen. Once the calibration and set up are completed, there is no need to make any adjustment because the software automatically uses the desired settings on restart. The Enhanced Infrared calibration does not drift with varying ambient conditions.
The Micropointing„¢ touch screen is compatible with various computer operating systems through the use of a system-specific touch screen software driver (mouse emulator).
The Micropointing„¢ touch screen includes special software installed in the touch controller card at the factory. This software allows two modes of operation:
Normal Mode - The touch screen operates with the normal touch screen settings.
Micropointing„¢ Mode - The touch screen allows the operator to precisely pinpoint a certain visual image with the cursor arrow in full view.
The Micropointing„¢ mode can be engaged or disengaged by the operator with a second quick touch on the screen while the first finger is still on the screen. The touch screen is activated only when the finger is lifted off the touch screen.
When the Micropointing„¢ mode is activated, the movement of the cursor is approximately 1/8th of the distance that the finger is moved on the surface of the screen.
Touch Keys„¢
The Touch Keys„¢ technology is used to activate keyboard functions, icons, points on a map, or other targets located outside the display area.
The Touch Keys„¢ touch screens utilize an enlarged active touch area. The rear of the extra faceplate area, outside the display area, is silk-screened or engraved with touch-activated "keys" that can communicate with the computer through the keyboard port or an additional Rs232 serial port.
Latest development
Introducing a New Touch Screen System
Touch screens are widely used in numerous industries and applications that require exacting combinations of accuracy, touch sensitivity, and durability. Each touch screen application has its own unique challenges, and traditionally, customers chose the touch screen technology with the fewest disadvantages and technical limitations for their specific application. Enter Dynaproâ„¢s Near Field Imaging (NFI) Touch Screen System. Patented by Dynapro in 1997, it is uncompromising in both performance and toughness, making it the perfect choice when high clarity and durability are at issue.
What is NFI
Simply put, itâ„¢s a touch screen where the screen itself is the sensor. NFI uses a sophisticated sensing circuit that can detect a conductive object - a finger or conductive stylus - through a layer of glass, as well as through gloves or other potential barriers (moisture, gels, paints, etc.). This is achieved with a high degree of accuracy using data acquisition and image processing techniques that generate a precise profile of the touch.
The NFI touch screen sensor uses a transparent conductive film patterned with a proprietary topology applied to the base layer of glass. The front layer of glass is bonded over the base layer with an optical adhesive. An excitation waveform is supplied to the conductive layer by the controller to generate a low strength electrostatic field in the front layer of glass. The near field is modulated by finger contact with the front layer of glass, and a resultant differential signal is created, making it possible to accurately resolve the electrostatic loading on the face of the screen.
Dynaproâ„¢s data acquisition expertise was instrumental in designing the method by which the system firmware recognizes and decodes the location of the touch. The controller scans continuously until it receives signs of an impending touch. At this point it shifts into a different mode and subtracts the baseline associated with the conditions immediately preceding the touch. This way, static and noise do not affect the image of the touch. The profile of the touch is constructed from a dynamic array of data points, and resolved to an actual touch point through continuous re-imaging of the electrostatic field. Touch coordinates are fed back to the operating system as fully compliant Microsoft mouse coordinates.
Once a touch is registered, its effect is zeroed out, so a subsequent touch in another location can be detected. The system resolves and reports concurrent touches without averaging, allowing for advanced touch input capabilities.
Any long-term changes in the electrostatic image are compensated for, allowing the system to ignore unwanted objects directly on the screen such as water droplets, insects, conductive dirt, or other adhering contamination. Imaging also enables the touch screen to ignore unwanted loading effects from large or distant objects such as hands or arms, and to reject false touches.
Sophisticated data acquisition and image processing ensure NFI is accurate enough to control equipment consistently and precisely, yet sensitive enough to detect finger touches through gloves, and work through moisture and other contaminants. The sensorâ„¢s glass construction provides superior optical performance, and will continue to operate despite scratching, pitting, and other surface damage from abrasives, chemicals or vandals.
NFI touch screens can be reliably sealed for applications that require high pressure washdown or protection from contaminant-filled environments.
NFI Addresses Needs
NFI offers significant advantages in performance and durability without compromises, and itâ„¢s the only touch screen technology that overcomes the technical limitations found in other touch screen technologies, by addressing three main factors:
¢ Accuracy - the ability to control equipment consistently and precisely despite extreme environmental conditions
¢ Touch Sensitivity - the ability to operate the touch screen with gloves through moisture, dirt, and other surface contaminants
¢ Durability - the ability to withstand scratches and other surface damage caused by abrasives, chemicals, or vandalism
The Benefits of NFI
Designed for Ruggedness
NFI technology offers protection against scratches, scrapes, gouges, and severe abrasion. The sensor layer of the screen is well protected beneath the glass surface, so performance remains unaffected even if the front glass layer is damaged.
Contaminant Proof
Surface contaminants such as moisture, dirt, grease, and chemicals do not affect the performance of the touch screen and can easily be cleaned. The touch screen stands up to virtually all chemicals and continues to function accurately through any sub-stance.
Touch Sensitivity
You can activate NFI with a touch of a finger - gloved or ungloved - or other conductive stylus.
Stability
Variations in temperature, humidity, and altitude do not affect NFI. The touch screen remains drift-free and does not require field calibration to maintain accuracy. NFI is also immune to electro-static discharge and electromagnetic interference.
Sealing Capability
NFI touch screens can be reliably sealed for applications that require high pressure washdown or for protection from contaminant-filled environments. Systems incorporating NFI touch screens can readily achieve a NEMA 4X rating.
Performance
NFI requires very light contact and responds instantly to an operatorâ„¢s touch. With NFIâ„¢s linearity and resolution, you can effectively perform drag and drop operations. And the NFI touch screen also resolves and reports concurrent touches without averaging.
Shock and Vibration
NFI touch screens can withstand significant vibration and shock without jeopardizing safety or performance. With chemically strengthened glass and no mechanically sensitive components, NFI performs reliably when used in a high vibration environment.
Optical Clarity
NFIâ„¢s solid glass layer provides excellent image clarity. With extremely high transmissivity, and unobtrusive glare and reflection protection, NFI provides a clear window for any application.
How is Touch Technology different from other devices
No special commands to learn.
The user doesn't need to look away from the screen to a keyboard and back again.
Entering wrong information is impossible, only valid options are offered on the screen.
There are no loose pieces of hardware to be damaged or lost
UltimaTouch
A high-performance touch screen POS platform with three different systems keyed to your needs. All provide a superior foundation for a comprehensive retail POS workstation. Each features an integrated, single-board computer, active matrix LCD with 5-wire resistive touch screen, and magnetic stripe reader to support many retail applications. Highly configurable with multiple mounting options and large selection of interface ports, including USB for connectivity to printers, cash drawers, scanners, keyboards and more.
Models are differentiated by processor speed.
¢ Attractive, compact ergonomic design
¢ Multiple mounting options ideal for any environment
¢ Rugged, tamper-resistant enclosure for high-use retail interaction
¢ Easy installation, maintenance, and access to peripheral connections
Ultrx Systems - the ultimate prescription to eliminate the paperwork Pharmacy Technology - A Way Ahead
Whether you like it or not - change is on your doorstep! The rate of change in technology occurring at present means pharmacists can either get on the wagon, or be left behind in the dust wondering just where everyone else has gone. This article will give you an idea of some of the technology is presently available to retail and hospital pharmacists to make your life easier, and save you time (a most valuable resource that pharmacists have little of!).
There are a range of technology options available to todays' pharmacist, and you don't have to have a computer science degree to be able to use them. Most systems come with excellent back up, so even if you do test the "fool-proof" system to the max., there will be someone to haul you out.
Technology can be divided broadly into three sections:
¢ Hardware
¢ Software
¢ Web-based/Internet/Intranet
Web addresses are listed where available for further information.
1. HARDWARE
The decision to upgrade your computer is usually made based on the software you choose to purchase for your shop/dispensary system. The term "hardware" covers wide range of products such as Automated drug dispensing systems, information kiosks, EFTPOS terminals and scanners.
a) Automated Drug Dispensing Systems :
a) Healthpoint Kiosks:
Healthpoint kiosks are user-friendly, comprehensive tools for up to date health information. With touch screen technology and a wide range of information available such as adult ailments, specialty diets, post-operative care, first aid, mental health, vitamin and amino acid information, pregnancy, child care and more, customers and staff find the kiosks easy to use. Information is presented using print media, and also video and graphic presentations.
Pharmacies who already have the kiosks installed find they are popular with all age groups, and lead to an increase in foot traffic, as well as improved communication between pharmacist and patient.
b) EFTPOS terminals:
EFTPOS New Zealand Limited have recently launched an innovative new product, PC EFTPOS Lite. PC EFTPOS Lite enables any pharmacy to integrate their PC-Windows based point-of-sale system with their EFTPOS terminal. This provides retailers with the ability to keep an electronic journal eliminating the need for receipt copies, and process transactions cheaper, as EFTPOS receipt and sales receipts are printed by one printer. PC EFTPOS Lite has the ability to run multiple EFTPOS lanes from a single telephone line, as well as increasing counter space due to a compact pinpad unit and no need for a separate printer.
c) Bar Code Scanners - The main types of scanners used in the retail environment are Laser Scanners and CCD scanners. Both types scan automatically and can be initiated by either a trigger switch, or automatically using flash mode.
Main differences are :
¢ Laser scanners read bar codes over short to medium distances ( most types up to 1 metre ), and are in the upper price range .
¢ CCD scanners can read barcodes only over small distances - usually not more than 25mm.They are less expensive and more robust than the laser scanners.
New technology which should be available to the pharmacy market in the near future is wireless scanners which will have uses for stocktaking, and potentially as a useful tool in dispensing and checking prescriptions.
2. SOFTWARE
There are two main pharmacy software programmes :
(i) LOTS (Harvey Lockie):
LOTS is designed to be 100% Windows compliant. You can have multiple windows open, for example, while dispensing also have open orders, and Point of Sale (PoS) for instant access. If you have both dispensing and OTC modules, the two systems are integrated to combine ordering and interactions(ie between OTC purchases and prescription medicines), and also customer accounts.
LOTS uses sales forecasting and stock management formulae which have been shown to allow some 15% more turnover for the same stock compared to common computer systems, with about 50% less out-of-stocks and dead stock. LOTS has as a feature the "Compliance chart" that presents the whole of the last 12 months history of a patient in visual form on screen. It is a very popular features, and most pharmacists say that it is allows a major advance in their professional services.
(ii) TONIQ :
Toniq is a Windows-based program, with both dispensing and retail
modules available. Toniq has electronic communications used as frontline support, which means any time you have a software problem, Toniq aim to resolve it for you while you are on the phone, using modems and the pcAnywhere program to control your computer from their office in Christchurch and work on the problem for you. Help is available anytime you need it.
Toniq has a comprehensive database of medicines, including a large range of Hospital only medicines. The medicine file update is available for download to registered users from their website.
This year Toniq is introducing a number of new features-Web based education and on-line forums, modules for assisting patient compliance. The program prepares a patient guide, which assist the patient to understand dose times, the medication and expected pick up dates for repeats. Data sharing tools are also being introduced, to allow transfer of retail information within a group.
Other software available to assist in areas of pharmacy practice includes-
a) pc Anywhere:
Pharmacies can use a program such as pcAnywhere to allow staff to work off-site, accessing the pharmacy computer via a modem connection. pcAnywhere is password protected, so staff can only access areas that they are assigned to. Stobo's pharmacy in Oamaru employ a staff member who works from home to process inwards goods. This streamlines the processing of orders, and frees up shop staff to be available to customers. Their Dispensary Manager also accesses the MAQS program from home to review documents using pcAnywhere, without the interruptions of a normal busy day.
3.INTERNET/INTRANET
With the many applications available through the Internet, it is rapidly becoming an essential business tool. Security becomes an issue with internet access, and must always be kept in mind.
Many pharmacies are now advancing in e-commerce, and launching on-line stores. Pharmacy groups, such as Amcal and Unichem, recognise IT as important directions for growth, and have dedicated IT departments.
Amcal :
The Amcal website has a number of features which give pharmacies in this group a presence on the Internet.
Each Amcal pharmacy has its' own on-line store, an e-zine ( an e-zine is an internet newsletter, if you're not familiar with the term ) which is generated centrally, but personalised when sent to the customer, a section where customers can enter their repeat prescription details and a fax is sent to their pharmacy ( which customers select from a drop-down list), with all the details, including delivery or collection time . This means Amcal pharmacists can have the prescriptions ready for the patients before they come in.
Amcal also utilises Intranet technology ( which means all members are linked via an independent line ) to run a point of sale system called AdvanceRetail, which centralizes product maintenance & sales information, and is used create a national sales picture of what is happening in each pharmacy.This allows measure of how successful a particular promotion has been, and other important feedback.
Unichem
Unichem launched their IT department 6 months ago, focussing on setting up an Intranet system which was launched in Nov 2000, the first in a number of technology projects the Board are committed to. It caters to the three franchises, Unichem, Unichem Life, and Dispensary First, with each franchise only accessing information relevant to them.
The Intranet is named "Splash " and allows Unichem members to "dive" into four different sections of information technology - News, Knowledge, Discussion and Trade.
The News area has general news pertaining to pharmacy, such as industry news - both local and international, suppliers' news, conference and marketing information. The Knowledge area contains logos and templates for advertising, training information, marketing promotions, and reference articles. This frees up the Head Office staff from repetitive tasks to allow them to concentrate on other issues, as well as allowing pharmacies to access information in their own time, as often as they like. This flexibility, as well as ease of content editing is essential for the success of Splash.
The discussion area is proving popular for discussion on issues such as Society and new Government initiatives, as is the Trade area, giving pharmacists the opportunity to exchange dead stock.
Primenet:
Primenet is a secure on-line information network and communications package. With 50% ownership by the Pharmacy Guild and the remaining 50% owned by pharmacists, Primenet will bring pharmacy to the fore in the ownership of medicine data collection and feedback, putting a stake in the ground for pharmacy to be the correlators of patient care.
The system has nationwide application, and so far , 763 pharmacies have shown interest in joining the Primenet network. A number of IPA groups have also shown interest in the system, recognising the value of feedback on issues such as patient compliance, as well as prescribing habits and correlation with costs.
Primenet offers a complete communication package, allowing savings to be made on existing telecommunication and operating costs. Savings will also be made through access to medical reference material, reducing the necessity for purchasing these items. Finding and retrieving information will be quick and easy with high speed, secure Internet access.
Of particular importance to pharmacy are the security protocols that have been built into Primenet, to ensure an exceptionally high level of security. Being a secure intranet for the medical community, usage is restricted to registered health professionals with authorised access. While the protection of data is provided through a layer of encryption processes and network firewalls.
Probably the most exciting benefit that Primenet offers is the glimpse of future directions and uses the Primenet system will offer. Data collection and exchange - not only prescription details, but also clinical information such as test results will give pharmacists meaningful data to assist in patient care, and the tracking of any alterations in therapy made through PRS.
IPA budget spending can already be tracked for individual IPA groups and categorised into 144 Therapeutic groups. Meaningful data is collected, with not only funded medicines being analysed, but also prescription items that are presently "lost"in the pharmaceutical system such as NSS items and Under$15 scripts. Being able to extract, analyze and correlate this type of data will improve doctor-pharmacist relations, as has already been shown where these types of systems have been trailed.
Conclusion:
Touch Screen is widely used and emerging technology that is sensitive to human touch, allowing a user to interact with the computer by touching pictures or words on the screen. It provides a very good user interface with applications that normally require a mouse.
It is very useful in various fields like Museum / tourism displays, railway station, casino and other gaming systems, Airport, telephone exchange etc.
It has good future in many new technologies like in cell phones, palmtops, laptops etc.
References:
http://www.touchscreen_encyclopedia.com
http://www.elotouchsystem.com

Contents
Introduction
History
Definition
What are Touch Screens
Why to use Touch Screens
Applications of Touch Screens
Types of Touch Screens
Resistive
Acoustic Wave
Capacitive
Comparison of the Different Types
Construction of touch screen
Manufacturing of touch screen
Application of Touch screen
Latest development
Conclusion
Reference

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12-04-2010, 07:24 PM
Post: #7
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt
please read http://www.seminarprojectsThread-touch-screen-full-report and http://www.seminarprojectsThread-touch-screen-technology-report-and-ppt for getting touch screen technology informations


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18-05-2010, 08:43 PM
Post: #8
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt

.pptx  Touch Screen technology.pptx (Size: 718.34 KB / Downloads: 487)

Touch Screen technology

Presented By:
P.Maheedhar Sai Sandeep
Roll No:6444



index

Introduction
Working
Technologies
Applications
Advantages and disadvantages
Future
References



introduction:

The first "touch sensor" was developed by Doctor Sam Hurst (founder of Elographics) while he was an instructor at the University of Kentucky. This sensor was called the "Elograph".
Elographics developed and patented five-wire resistive technology, the most popular touch screen technology in use today.



DEFINITION

A touch screen is basically an input device that allows a user to operate a PC or any other device by simply touching the display screen with a finger or a stylus.
A touch screen is a computer display screen that is also an input device. The screens are sensitive to pressure; a user interacts with the computer by touching pictures or words on the screen



working

o A basic touch screen has three main components
-touch sensor
-controller
-software driver.
o The touch screen is an input device, so it needs to be combined with a display and a PC or other device to make a complete touch input system.

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06-06-2010, 12:08 PM
Post: #9
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt
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23-06-2010, 01:27 PM
Post: #10
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt

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Touch Screen Technology
Introduction

A touch screen is a display which can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area. The term generally refers to touch or contact to the display of the device by a finger or hand. Touch screens can also sense other passive objects, such as a stylus. However, if the object sensed is active, as with a light pen, the term touch screen is generally not applicable. The thumb rule is: if you can interact with the display using your finger, it is likely a touch screen - even if you are using a stylus or some other object.

Up until recently, most touch screens could only sense one point of contact at a time, and few have had the capability to sense how hard one is touching. This is starting to change with the emergence of multi-touch technology - a technology that was first seen in the early 1980s, but which is now appearing in commercially available systems.
The touch screen has two main attributes. First, it enables you to interact with what is displayed directly on the screen, where it is displayed, rather than indirectly with a mouse (computing) or touchpad. Secondly, it lets one do so without requiring any intermediate device, again, such as a stylus that needs to be held in the hand. Such displays can be attached to computers or, as terminals, to networks. They also play a prominent role in the design of digital appliances such as the personal digital assistant (PDA), satellite navigation devices and mobile phone.
Applications
Touch screens emerged from academic and corporate research labs in the second half of the 1960s. One of the first places where they gained some visibility was in the terminal of a computer-assisted learning terminal that came out in 1972 as part of the PLATO project. They have subsequently become familiar in kiosk systems, such as in retail and tourist settings, on point of sale systems, on ATMs and on PDAs where a stylus is sometimes used to manipulate the GUI and to enter data. The popularity of smart phones, PDAs, portable game consoles and many types of information appliances is driving the demand for, and the acceptance of, touch screens.
The HP-150 from 1983 was probably the world's earliest commercial touch screen computer. It actually does not have a touch screen in the strict sense, but a 9" Sony CRT surrounded by infrared transmitters and receivers which detect the position of any non-transparent object on the screen.
Touch screens are popular in heavy industry and in other situations, such as museum displays or room automation, where keyboards and mouse do not allow a satisfactory, intuitive, rapid, or accurate interaction by the user with the display's content.
Historically, the touch screen sensor and its accompanying controller-based firmware have been made available by a wide array of after-market system and not by display, chip or motherboard manufacturers. With time, however, display manufacturers and System On Chip (SOC) manufacturers worldwide have acknowledged the trend toward acceptance of touch screens as a highly desirable user interface component and have begun to integrate touch screen functionality into the fundamental design of their products.
Technologies
There are a number of types of touch screen technology:-


Resistive

A resistive touch screen panel is composed of several layers. The most important are two thin metallic electrically conductive and resistive layers separated by thin space. When some object touches this kind of touch panel, the layers are connected at certain point; the panel then electrically acts similar to two voltage dividers with connected outputs. This causes a change in the electrical current which is registered as a touch event and sent to the controller for processing. When measuring press force, it is useful to add resistor dependent on force in this model -- between the dividers.
A resistive touch panel output can consist of between four and eight wires. The positions of the conductive contacts in resistive layers differ depending on how many wires are used. When four wires are used, the contacts are placed on the left, right, top, and bottom sides. When five wires are used, the contacts are placed in the corners and on one plate.
4 wire resistive panels can estimate the area (and hence the pressure) of a touch based on calculations from the resistances.
Resistive touch screen panels are generally more affordable but offer only 75% clarity [citation needed] (premium films and glass finishes allow transitivity to approach 85% [citation needed]) and the layer can be damaged by sharp objects. Resistive touch screen panels are not affected by outside elements such as dust or water and are the type most commonly used today. The Nintendo DS is an example of a product that uses resistive touch screen technology.
Surface acoustic wave
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology uses ultrasonic waves that pass over the touch screen panel. When the panel is touched, a portion of the wave is absorbed. This change in the ultrasonic waves registers the position of the touch event and sends this information to the controller for processing. Surface wave touch screen panels can be damaged by outside elements. Contaminants on the surface can also interfere with the functionality of the touch screen.
Capacitive

A capacitive touch screen panel is coated with a material, typically indium tin oxide that conducts a continuous electrical current across the sensor. The sensor therefore exhibits a precisely controlled field of stored electrons in both the horizontal and vertical axes - it achieves capacitance. The human body is also an electrical device which has stored electrons and therefore also exhibits capacitance.

When the sensor's 'normal' capacitance field (its reference state) is altered by another capacitance field, i.e., someone's finger, electronic circuits located at each corner of the panel measure the resultant 'distortion' in the sine wave characteristics of the reference field and sends the information about the event to the controller for mathematical processing. Capacitive sensors can either be touched with a bare finger or with a conductive device being held by a bare hand. Capacitive touch screens are not affected by outside elements and have high clarity. The Apple iPhone is an example of a product that uses capacitance touch screen technology: the iPhone is further capable of multi-touch sensing.
Capacitive sensors work based on proximity, and do not have to be directly touched to be triggered. In most cases, direct contact to a conductive metal surface does not occur and the conductive sensor is separated from the user's body by an insulating glass or plastic layer. Devices with capacitive buttons intended to be touched by a finger can often be triggered by quickly waving the palm of the hand close to the surface without touching.
Infrared



An infrared (IR) touch screen panel employs one of two very different methods. One method uses thermal induced changes of the surface resistance. This method is sometimes slow and requires warm hands. Another method is an array of vertical and horizontal IR sensors that detect the interruption of a modulated light beam near the surface of the screen. IR touch screens have the most durable surfaces and are used in many military applications that require a touch panel display.
Optical imaging
A relatively-modern development in touch screen technology, two or more image sensors are placed around the edges (mostly the corners) of the screen. Infrared backlights are placed in the camera's field of view on the other sides of the screen. A touch shows up as a shadow and each pair of cameras can then be triangulated to locate the touch. This technology is growing in popularity, due to its scalability, versatility, and affordability, especially for larger units.
Dispersive signal technology

Introduced in 2002, this system uses sensors to detect the mechanical energy in the glass that occur due to a touch. Complex algorithms then interpret this information and provide the actual location of the touch. The technology claims to be unaffected by dust and other outside elements, including scratches. Since there is no need for additional elements on screen, it also claims to provide excellent optical clarity. Also, since mechanical vibrations are used to detect a touch event, any object can be used to generate these events, including fingers and stylus. A downside is that after the initial touch the system cannot detect a motionless finger.
Acoustic pulse recognition

This system uses more than two piezoelectric transducers located at some positions of the screen to turn the mechanical energy of a touch (vibration) into an electronic signal. This signal is then converted into an audio file, and then compared to preexisting audio profile for every position on the screen. This system works without a grid of wires running through the screen; the touch screen itself is actually pure glass, giving it the optics and durability of the glass out of which it is made. It works with scratches and dust on the screen, and accuracy is very good. It does not need a conductive object to activate it. It is a major advantage for larger displays. As with the Dispersive Signal Technology system, after the initial touch this system cannot detect a motionless finger.
Frustrated total internal reflection
This optical system works by using the principle of total internal reflection to fill a refractive medium with light. When a finger or other soft object is pressed against the surface, the internal reflection light path is interrupted, making the light reflect outside of the medium and thus visible to a camera behind the medium.


Touch Screen Technology Comparison Chart

Resistive Infrared Surface Acoustic Wave Capacitive
Touch resolution High High Average High
Clarity Average Good Good Good
Operation Finger or stylus Finger or stylus Finger or soft-tipped stylus Finger only
Durability Can be damaged by sharp objects Highly durable Susceptible to dirt and moisture Highly durable

Development
Virtually all of the significant touch screen technology patents were filed during the 1970s and 1980s and have expired. Touch screen component manufacturing and product design are no longer encumbered by royalties or legalities with regard to patents and the manufacturing of touch screen-enabled displays on all kinds of devices is widespread.
The development of multipoint touch screens facilitated the tracking of more than one finger on the screen, thus operations that require more than one finger are possible. These devices also allow multiple users to interact with the touch screen simultaneously.
With the growing acceptance of many kinds of products with an integral touch screen interface the marginal cost of touch screen technology is routinely absorbed into the products that incorporate it and is effectively eliminated. As typically occurs with any technology, touch screen hardware and software has sufficiently matured and been perfected over more than three decades to the point where its reliability is unassailable. As such, touch screen displays are found today in airplanes, automobiles, gaming consoles, machine control systems, appliances and handheld display devices of every kind. With the influence of the multitouch-enabled iPhone, the touch screen market for mobile devices is projected to produce US$5 billion in 2009.
The ability to accurately point on the screen itself is taking yet another step with the emerging graphics tablet/screen hybrids.
Ergonomics and usage
Finger stress
An ergonomic problem of touch screens is their stress on human fingers when used for more than a few minutes at a time, since significant pressure can be required and the screen is non-flexible. This can be alleviated with the use of a pen or other device to add leverage, but the introduction of such items can sometimes be problematic depending on the desired use case (for example, public kiosks such as ATMs). Also, fine motor control is better achieved with a stylus, a finger being a rather broad and ambiguous point of contact with the screen.
Fingernail as stylus
These ergonomic issues of direct touch can be bypassed by using a different technique, provided that the user's fingernails are either short or sufficiently long. Rather than pressing with the soft skin of an outstretched fingertip, the finger is curled over, so that the top of the forward edge of a fingernail can be used instead. (The thumb is optionally used to provide support for the finger or for a long fingernail, from underneath.)
The fingernail's hard, curved surface contacts the touch screen at a single very small point. Therefore, much less finger pressure is needed, much greater precision is possible (approaching that of a stylus, with a little experience), much less skin oil is smeared onto the screen, and the fingernail can be silently moved across the screen with very little resistance, allowing for selecting text, moving windows, or drawing lines.
The human fingernail consists of keratin which has a hardness and smoothness similar to the tip of a stylus (and so will not typically scratch a touch screen). Alternately, very short stylus tips are available, which slip right onto the end of a finger; this increases visibility of the contact point with the screen. Oddly, with capacitive touch screens, the reverse problem applies in that individuals with long nails have reported problems getting adequate skin contact with the screen to register keystrokes (note that ordinary styli do not work on capacitive touch screens nor do gloved fingers).
The concept of using a fingernail trimmed to form a point, to be specifically used as a stylus on a writing tablet for communication, appeared in the 1950 science fiction short story Scanners Live in Vain.
Fingerprints
Touch screens also suffer from the problem of fingerprints on the display. This can be mitigated by the use of materials with optical coatings designed to reduce the visible effects of fingerprint oils.

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24-06-2010, 11:40 AM
Post: #11
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt

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WHAT IS TO BE EXPLAINED..
INTRODUCTION TO THE TECHNOLOGY
HOW IT WORKS
TOUCH SCREEN DIVERSITY
CONTROLERS USED
APPLICATIONS
CONCLUSION


INTRODUCING THE TECHNOLOGY

A touch screen is an input device that allows users to operate a PC by simply touching the display screen.
The display screen has a sensitive glass overlay placed on it and we could give the desired input by touching it.
A touch screen is based on CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) technology, that accepts direct onscreen input.
The ability for direct onscreen input is facilitated by an external (light pen) or an internal device (touch overlay and controller) .


HOW DOES A TOUCHSCREEN WORK

Main touch screen components:
Touch sensor
Controller
Software driver


TOUCH SENSOR
A touch screen sensor is a clear glass panel with a touch responsive surface which is placed over a display screen so that the responsive area of the panel covers the viewable area of the display screen.
The sensor generally has an electrical current or signal going through it and touching the screen causes a voltage or signal change. This voltage change is used to determine the location of the touch to the screen


CONTROLLER

The controller is a small PC card that connects between the touch sensor and the PC. It takes information from the touch sensor and translates it into information that PC can understand.



SOFTWARE DRIVER

The driver is a software that allows the touch screen and computer to work together. It tells the operating system how to interpret the touch event information that is sent from the controller.
Most touch screen drivers today are a mouse-emulation type driver. This makes touching the screen the same as clicking your mouse at the same location on the screen.



TOUCH SCREEN DIVERSITY

Resistive Touch screen
Surface wave Touch screen
Capacitive Touch screen
*Surface capacitive
*Projected capacitive
Near Field Imaging Touch screen
Infrared Touch screen



RESISTIVE TOUCH SCREEN

1. Polyester Film .
2. Top Resistive Layer.
3. Conductive Transparent Metal Coating.
4. Bottom Resistive Layer .
5. Insulating Dots .
6. Glass Substrate
7. Resistive touch screen monitor is composed of a flexible top layer and a rigid bottom layer separated by insulating dots, attached to a touch screen controller.
The inside surface of each of the two layers is coated with a transparent metal oxide coating
Pressing the flexible top sheet creates electrical contact between the resistive layers, producing a switch closing in the circuit.
The controller gets the alternating voltages between the two layers and converts them into the digital X and Y coordinates of the activated area.

VS20UA CONTROLLER

Supply Voltage
5.0V DC
Maximum Current
20mA (Pick)
Resolution
12-bit




SURFACE WAVE TECHNOLOGY

It has a transmitting and receiving transducers for both the X and Y axes.
The touchscreen controller sends a 5 MHz electrical signal to the transmitting transducer, which converts the signal into ultrasonic waves within the glass.
Continued¦
These waves are directed across the front surface of the touchscreen by an array of reflectors.
Reflectors on the opposite side gather and direct the waves to the receiving transducer, which reconverts them into an electrical signal”a digital map of the touchscreen
When you touch the screen, you absorb a portion of the wave traveling across it. The received signal is then compared to the stored digital map, the change recognized, and a coordinate calculated. . The digitized coordinates are transmitted to the computer for processing.

2701RSU CONTROLLER

Voltaze
+5 VDC
Baud Rate
9600 (default) and 19200
Touch Resolution
12bit, size independent
Conversion Time
10 ms per coordinate set



CAPACITIVE TOUCH SCREENS

Surface Capacitive
It has a an uniform conductive coating on a glass panel.
During operation, electrodes around the panel's edge evenly distribute a low voltage across the conductive layer & creates an uniform electric field.
A finger touch draws current from each corner.
Then the controller measures the ratio of the current flow from the corners and calculates the touch location


5000 RSU SERIAL CONTROLLER

Supply Voltage :
+5 V DC or +12V
Baud Rate
9600 (default) and 19200
Touch Resolution
12bit, size independent.
Conversion Time
Approximately 15 ms per coordinate set




Projected Capacitive Touch screen

3layers:-front and
back protective glass
provides optical and
strength enhancement
options & middle
layer consists of a
laminated sensor grid
of micro-fine wires
During a touch, capacitance forms between the finger and the sensor grid.
The embedded serial controller in the touch screen calculates touch location coordinates and transmits them to the computer for processing.



APPLICATIONS..
Public Information Displays:::
Tourism displays, Trade show display
Customer Self-Services:::
Stores, Restaurants, ATMs, Airline ticket terminals and Transportation hubs.

Digital jukeboxes, Computerized gaming, Student Registration systems, Multimedia softwares , Scientific applications etc.




Pros & Cons

Direct pointing to the objects.
Fast
Finger or pen is usable (No cable required)
No keyboard necessary
Suited to: novices, application for information retrieval etc
Low precision by using finger
User has to sit or stand closer to the screen
The screen may be covered more by using hand
No direct activation to the selected function



CLOSING THOUGHTS

Though the touch screen technology contains some limitations itâ„¢s very user friendly, fast, accurate, easy for the novices & fun to operate. It has been widely accepted. And now by just modifying a little it can replace the mouse and key board completely in near future.

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
26-07-2010, 10:25 AM
Post: #12
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt
tureeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeq
27-07-2010, 07:05 PM
Post: #13
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt
Please post your request clearly. We don't have the ability to read your thoughts from whatever you scribble Tongue
If its for the report that you came, visit these threads for report and ppt of night vision technology:
http://www.seminarprojectsThread-night-vision-technology-a-seminar-report
http://www.seminarprojectsThread-night-vision-technology-a-seminar-report
http://www.seminarprojectsThread-night-vision-technology

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
30-07-2010, 03:28 PM
Post: #14
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt
HAI.. I NEED THE ABSTRACT,REPORT OF TOUCH SCREEN TECHNOLOGY. U CAN SEND TO sumishere[at]rediffmail.com. THANKING YOU.
15-08-2010, 12:18 PM
Post: #15
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt
anybody send me pdf file of latest touchscreen technology to give technical seminar in my college
19-08-2010, 06:37 AM
Post: #16
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt
Hello there would like to have the abstact and PPT,and would like to know about the technical details also
04-10-2010, 09:22 AM
Post: #17
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt

.ppt  TOUCH SCREEN TECHNOLOGY.ppt (Size: 1,020.5 KB / Downloads: 321)
This article is presented by:SHREEPADH r.g
TOUCH SCREEN TECHNOLOGY

History

Touch Screen have become commonplace since the invention of the electronic touch interface in 1971 by Dr. Samuel C. Hurst. They have become familiar in retail settings, on point of sale systems


What is touch screen

Touch screen is a computer
display screen that is sensitive
to human touch, allowing a user
to interact with the computer
by touching picture or words
on the screen
Touch screen are used with Information
Kiosks Computer-based training devices,
and systems designed to help individuals who have
difficulty manipulating a mouse or keyboard.

Types of touch screen

There are three types of touch screen technology:
Resistive
Capacitive
Surface wave

06-10-2010, 01:20 PM
Post: #18
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt


.ppt  Touchscreen.ppt (Size: 897.5 KB / Downloads: 726)


Introduction

-A touch screen is an input device that allows users to operate a PC by simply touching the display screen.

-The display screen has a sensitive glass overlay placed on it and we could give the desired input by touching it.

-A touch screen is based on CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) technology, that accepts direct onscreen input.

-The ability for direct onscreen input is facilitated by an external (light pen) or an internal device (touch overlay and controller) .
07-10-2010, 03:37 PM
Post: #19
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt

.ppt  Touch Screen technology.ppt (Size: 1.55 MB / Downloads: 270)

TOUCH SCREEN Technology


Shyam Kishor Choudhary
M. Sc. Computer Science & IT(Third Semester)
Roll No:3

INTRODUCTION:


The first "touch sensor" was developed by Doctor Samuel.This sensor was called the "Elograph".
Elographics developed and patented five-wire resistive technology, the most popular touch screen technology in use today.
Touch screen monitors have become more and more commonplace since their prices have dropped in the past decade. Touch screens are found in ATMs, cellular phones, airport check-in counters, and many other devices that we use every day.
The uses of touch systems as Graphical User Interface (GUI) devices for computers continuous to grow popularity.
29-10-2010, 05:53 PM
Post: #20
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt

.ppt  touchscreen29.ppt (Size: 2.55 MB / Downloads: 239)
TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGY

Submitted By :-
Md Nazish Aslam
0832EC071029

Submitted To :-
Mr. Amit Malik



INTRODUCING THE TECHNOLOGY


A visual display unit screen that allows the user to give commands to the computer by touching parts of the screen instead of using the keyboard or a mouse.

The display screen has a sensitive glass overlay placed on it and we could give the desired input by touching it.

A touch screen is based on CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) technology, that accepts direct onscreen input.
14-11-2010, 01:00 AM
Post: #21
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt
hi friend i m in 3rd yr in elctronics and communication engineering student i have a seminar on this topic so will u send me immediate full report on TOUCH SCREEN technology plz plz plz
16-11-2010, 04:47 PM
Post: #22
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt
Hi, the full report and ppt is available in the first page of this thread. Please see the remaining other pages of this thread.
24-11-2010, 12:07 PM
Post: #23
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt

.docx  Touch Screens.docx (Size: 98.59 KB / Downloads: 135)
Touch Screen



Introduction
A type of display screen that has a touch-sensitive transparent panel covering the screen. Instead of using a pointing device such as a mouse or light pen, you can use your finger to point directly to objects on the screen.
Although touch screens provide a natural interface for computer novices, they are unsatisfactory for most applications because the finger is such a relatively large object. It is impossible to point accurately to small areas of the screen. In addition, most users find touch screens tiring to the arms after long use.
Touch-screens are typically found on larger displays, in phones with integrated PDA features. Most are designed to work with either your finger or a special stylus. Tapping a specific point on the display will activate the virtual button or feature displayed at that location on the display.
A touch screen is an input device that allows users to operate a PC by simply touching the display screen.
History
In 1971, the first "touch sensor" was developed by Doctor Sam Hurst (founder of Elographics) while he was an instructor at the University of Kentucky. This sensor, called the "Elograph," was patented by The University of Kentucky Research Foundation. The "Elograph" was not transparent like modern touch screens; however, it was a significant milestone in touch screen technology. In 1974, the first true touch screen incorporating a transparent surface was developed by Sam Hurst and Elographics. In 1977, Elographics developed and patented five-wire resistive technology, the most popular touch screen technology in use today. Touchscreens first gained some visibility with the invention of the computer-assisted learning terminal, which came out in 1975 as part of the PLATO project. Touch screens have subsequently become familiar in everyday life. Companies use touch screens for kiosk systems in retail and tourist settings, point of sale systems, ATMs, and PDAs, where a stylus is sometimes used to manipulate the GUI and to enter data. The popularity of smart phones, PDAs, portable game consoles and many types of information appliances is driving the demand for, and acceptance of, touch screens.
Construction
There are several principal ways to build a touch screen. The key goals are to recognize one or more fingers touching a display, to interpret the command that this represents, and to communicate the command to the appropriate application.
In the most popular techniques, the capacitive or resistive approach, there are typically four layers;
1. Top polyester layer coated with a transparent metallic conductive coating on the bottom
2. Adhesive spacer
3. Glass layer coated with a transparent metallic conductive coating on the top
4. Adhesive layer on the backside of the glass for mounting.
When a user touches the surface, the system records the change in the electrical current that flows through the display.
Touch screen monitors
DM Sourcing sells Liquid Crystal Display technologies in a variety of functional business and consumer applications.

We provide touch screen monitors in a full range of sizes with multiple options for a broad range of industries including information kiosks, mobile transportation systems, Industrial and medical systems, commercial advertising displays, sports facilities and military equipment.
Touch Screen Monitors, Touch Screen LCD Flat Panels


Capacitive touch screens consist of a glass panel with a capacitive (charge storing) material coating its surface. Unlike resistive touch screens, where any object can create a touch, they require contact with a bare finger or conductive stylus. When the screen is touched by an appropriate conductive object, current from each corner of the touch screen is drawn to the point of contact. This causes oscillator circuits located at corners of the screen to vary in frequency depending on where the screen was touched. The resultant frequency changes are measured to determine the x- and y- co-ordinates of the touch event.
Advantages And Disadvantages of touch screen


Advantages
• Touch screen displays can be used in fast pace retail or restaurant to speed up the work for the employees and reduce the training time for new employees
• Airline's can also use touch screen to their advantage by using the touch screen displays in the airline e ticket machine, this is an advantage because the airline can speed up the process of the customers ordering tickets and queuing up.

Disadvantages of touch screen
• Some disadvantages are that the user must be within arms reach of the display, it would be difficult to select small items,
• It could have a possible retrofit problem (the touch screen must be fitted on the screen), and there could be possible arm fatigue.
• It can cause you to feel a little electric shocks if you touch the screen with your wet fingers.
• User's hand may obscure the screen.
• Screens need to be installed at a lower position and tilted to reduce arm fatigue.
• Some reduction in image brightness may occur.
• They cost more than alternative devices.

Summary
All computer display touch systems offer their advantages and
Disadvantages in comparison. As previously stated, the resistive system, due to its metallic coated layers, decreases light transmittance and the image is not optimally clear.The capacitive system also reduces the amount of transmitted light, 90% as compared to 75%, again due to its metallic coated capacitive layer. An additional image distortion is present in both systems due to the presence of metal particles is the production of a yellow tint. The yellow tint is most obvious with white and light colored objects.Due to the high traffic nature of their use, the durability of the computer display touch screens is another area of comparison one should consider when considering a purchase
27-11-2010, 11:26 AM
Post: #24
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt

.doc  Touchscreen.doc (Size: 522.5 KB / Downloads: 125)
Presented By: PATEL JAYENDRA K
touch screen technology


History of touchscreen?
A special thanks goes to Jason Ford of Elo TouchSystems, the company whose founder invented touch screen technology, for providing the following historical information.
In 1971, the first "touch sensor" was developed by Doctor Sam Hurst (founder of Elographics) while he was an instructor at the University of Kentucky. This sensor called the "Elograph" was patented by The University of Kentucky Research Foundation. The "Elograph" was not transparent like modern touch screens, however, it was a significant milestone in touch screen technology.
In 1974, the first true touch screen incorporating a transparent surface came on the scene developed by Sam Hurst and Elographics. In 1977, Elographics developed and patented five-wire resistive technology, the most popular touch screen technology in use today. On February 24, 1994, the company officially changed its name from Elographics to Elo TouchSystems.

What is Touch screen?

A touch screen is a computer display screen that is sensitive to human touch, allowing a user to interact with the computer by touching pictures or words on the screen.
A type of display screen that has a touch-sensitive transparent panel covering the screen. Instead of using a pointing device such as a mouse or light pen, you can use your finger to point directly to objects on the screen.
Touch screens are used with information kiosks, computer-based training devices, and systems designed to help individuals who have difficulty manipulating a mouse or keyboard.
Touch screen technology can be used as an alternative user interface with applications that normally require a mouse, such as a Web browser. Some applications are designed specifically for touch screen technology, often having larger icons and links than the typical PC application.
Monitors are available with built-in touch screen technology or individuals can purchase a touch screen kit. A touch screen kit includes a touch screen panel, a controller, and a software driver.
The touch screen panel is a clear panel attached externally to the monitor that plugs into a serial or Universal Serial Bus (USB) port or a bus card installed inside the computer. The touch screen panel registers touch events and passes these signals to the controller. The controller then processes the signals and sends the data to the processor.
The software driver translates touch events into mouse events. Drivers can be provided for both Windows and Macintosh operating systems.
Internal touch screen kits are available but require professional installation because they must be installed inside the monitor.Although touch screens provide a natural interface for computer novices, they are unsatisfactory for most applications because the finger is such a relatively large object.
It is impossible to point accurately to small areas of the screen. In addition, most users find touch screens tiring to the arms after long use.

How Does a Touchscreen Work?

A basic touchscreen has three main components: a touch sensor, a controller, and a software driver. The touchscreen is an input device, so it needs to be combined with a display and a PC or other device to make a complete touch input system
1. Touch Sensor
A touch screen sensor is a clear glass panel with a touch responsive surface. The touch sensor/panel is placed over a display screen so that the responsive area of the panel covers the viewable area of the video screen. There are several different touch sensor technologies on the market today, each using a different method to detect touch input. The sensor generally has an electrical current or signal going through it and touching the screen causes a voltage or signal change. This voltage change is used to determine the location of the touch to the screen.

2. Controller
The controller is a small PC card that connects between the touch sensor and the PC. It takes information from the touch sensor and translates it into information that PC can understand. The controller is usually installed inside the monitor for integrated monitors or it is housed in a plastic case for external touch add-ons/overlays. The controller determines what type of interface/connection you will need on the PC. Integrated touch monitors will have an extra cable connection on the back for the touchscreen. Controllers are available that can connect to a Serial/COM port (PC) or to a USB port (PC or Macintosh). Specialized controllers are also available that work with DVD players and other devices.

3. Software Driver
The driver is a software update for the PC system that allows the touchscreen and computer to work together. It tells the computer's operating system how to interpret the touch event information that is sent from the controller. Most touch screen drivers today are a mouse-emulation type driver. This makes touching the screen the same as clicking your mouse at the same location on the screen. This allows the touchscreen to work with existing software and allows new applications to be developed without the need for touchscreen specific programming. Some equipment such as thin client terminals, DVD players, and specialized computer systems either do not use software drivers or they have their own built-in touch screen driver.

Touch screen monitors — where you can use your finger on the computer screen to navigate through the contents — have become more and more commonplace over the past decade, particularly at public information kiosks. A basic touch screen has three main components: a touch sensor, a controller, and a software driver. The touch screen is an input device, so it needs to be combined with a display and a PC to make a complete touch input system.

The Touch Sensor has a textured coating across the glass face. This coating is sensitive to pressure and registers the location of the user's finger when it touches the screen. The controller is a small PC card that connects the touch sensor to the PC. It takes information from the touch sensor and translates it into information that PC can understand. The Software Driver is a software update for the PC system that allows the touchscreen and computer to work together. It tells the computer's operating system how to interpret the touch event information that is sent from the controller.

There are three basic systems that are used to recognise a person's touch — Resistive, Capacitive and Surface acoustic wave.

The resistive system consists of a normal glass panel that is covered with a conductive and a resistive metallic layer. These layers are held apart by spacers, and a scratch-resistant layer is placed on top of the whole set up. An electrical current runs through the two layers while the monitor is operational. When a user touches the screen, the two layers make contact in that spot. The change in electrical field is noted and coordinates of the point of contact are calculated. Once the coordinates are known, a special driver translates the touch into something that the operating system can understand, much as a computer mouse driver translates a mouse's movements into a click or drag.

In the capacitive system, a layer that stores electrical charge is placed on the glass panel of the monitor. When a user touches the monitor with his or her finger, some of the charge is transferred to the user, so the charge on the capacitive layer decreases. This decrease is measured in circuits located at each corner of the monitor. The computer calculates, from the relative differences in charge at each corner, exactly where the touch event took place and then relays that information to the touch screen driver software. One advantage of the capacitive system is that it transmits almost 90 per cent of the light from the monitor, whereas the resistive system only transmits about 75 per cent. This gives the capacitive system a much clearer picture than the resistive system.

The surface acoustic wave system uses two transducers (one receiving and one sending) placed along the x and y axes of the monitor's glass plate. Also placed on the glass are reflectors — they reflect an electrical signal sent from one transducer to the other. The receiving transducer is able to tell if the wave has been disturbed by a touch event at any instant, and can locate it accordingly. The wave setup has no metallic layers on the screen, allowing for 100-percent light throughput and perfect image clarity. This makes the surface acoustic wave system best for displaying detailed graphics (both other systems have significant degradation in clarity).

Another area in which the systems differ is which stimuli will register as a touch event. A resistive system registers a touch as long as the two layers make contact, which means that it doesn't matter if you touch it with your finger or a rubber ball. A capacitive system, on the other hand, must have a conductive input, usually your finger, in order to register a touch. The surface acoustic wave system works much like the resistive system, allowing a touch with almost any object — except hard and small objects like a pen tip.

Technologies
There are a number of types of touch screen technology
1. Resistive
A resistive touch screen panel is composed of several layers. The most important are two thin metallic electrically conductive and resistive layers separated by thin space. When some object touches this kind of touch panel, the layers are connected at certain point; the panel then electrically acts similar to two voltage dividers with connected outputs. This causes a change in the electrical current which is registered as a touch event and sent to the controller for processing. When measuring press force, it is useful to add resistor dependent on force in this model -- between the dividers.
A resistive touch panel output can consist of between four and eight wires. The positions of the conductive contacts in resistive layers differ depending on how many wires are used.
When four wires are used, the contacts are placed on the left, right, top, and bottom sides.
When five wires are used, the contacts are placed in the corners and on one plate.
4 wire resistive panels can estimate the area (and hence the pressure) of a touch based on calculations from the resistances.
Resistive touch screen panels are generally more affordable but offer only 75% clarity[ (premium films and glass finishes allow transmissivity to approach 85% and the layer can be damaged by sharp objects. Resistive touch screen panels are not affected by outside elements such as dust or water and are the type most commonly used today.
5-wire resistive touch screens are very accurate and reliable. Everyone can use them for whatever purpose he or she wants.
Our touch screens enlarge the active area to the entire screen, and advance an excellent quality as compared to common displays because of improved flatness and durability of the touché+d surface
8-Wire Resistive Technology

Resistive touchscreen technology exists in 4-wire, 5-wire, or 8-wire forms. FastPoint LCD touchscreens specifically employ 8-wire resistive technology because of its benefits over its counterparts. Whereas 8-wire FastPoint touchscreens are available in all sizes, 4-wire resistive technology is restricted to small flatpanels (<10.4"). Additionally, 8-wire resistive touchscreens are not susceptible to problems caused by high-level short-term variances and axis linearity and drift.
1.Polyester Flim
2.Uper Resistive circuit Layer
3.condutive ITO(Transparent metal)
4. Lower Resitive Circuit Layer
5.Insulating Dots
6.Glass/Acrlic Substrate
7.Touching the overlay surface causes the (2) Upper Resistive circuit Layer to contact the (4) Lower Resistive circuit Layer ,producing a circuit switch from the activated area.
8.The touchscreen controller gets the alternating voltages between the (7) two circuit Layer and converts them into the digital X and Y coordinates of the activated area.

2. Surface acoustic wave
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology uses ultrasonic waves that pass over the touch screen panel. When the panel is touched, a portion of the wave is absorbed. This change in the ultrasonic waves registers the position of the touch event and sends this information to the controller for processing. Surface wave touch screen panels can be damaged by outside elements. Contaminants on the surface can also interfere with the functionality of the touchscreen.
3.Capacitive
A capacitive touch screen panel is coated with a material, typically indium tin oxide that conducts a continuous electrical current across the sensor. The sensor therefore exhibits a precisely controlled field of stored electrons in both the horizontal and vertical axes - it achieves capacitance. The human body is also an electrical device which has stored electrons and therefore also exhibits capacitance. When the sensor's 'normal' capacitance field (its reference state) is altered by another capacitance field, i.e., someone's finger, electronic circuits located at each corner of the panel measure the resultant 'distortion' in the sine wave characteristics of the reference field and send the information about the event to the controller for mathematical processing. Capacitive sensors can either be touched with a bare finger or with a conductive device being held by a bare hand. Capacitive touch screens are not affected by outside elements and have high clarity, but their complex signal processing electronics increase their cost.
A capacitive touch screen consists of a glass panel with a capacitive (charge storing) material coating its surface. Circuits located at corners of the screen measure the capacitance of a person touching the overlay. Frequency changes are measured to determine the X and Y coordinates of the touch event.

Capacitive type touch screens are very durable, and have a high clarity. They are used in a wide range of applications, from restaurant and POS use to industrial controls and information kiosks.
Advantages
High touch resolution
High image clarity
Not affected by dirt, grease, moisture.
Disadvantages
Must be touched by finger, will not work with any non-conductive input
4.Infrared
An infrared touch screen panel employs one of two very different methods. One method used thermal induced changes of the surface resistance. This method was sometimes slow and required warm hands. Another method is an array of vertical and horizontal IR sensors that detected the interruption of a modulated light beam near the surface of the screen. IR touch screens have the most durable surfaces and are used in many military applications that require a touch panel display.
5. Strain gauge
In a strain gauge configuration the screen is spring mounted on the four corners and strain gauges are used to determine deflection when the screen is touched. This technology can also measure the Z-axis. Typically used in exposed public systems such as ticket machines due to their resistance to vandalism.
6.Optical imaging
A relatively-modern development in touch screen technology, two or more image sensors are placed around the edges (mostly the corners) of the screen. Infrared backlights are placed in the camera's field of view on the other sides of the screen. A touch shows up as a shadow and each pair of cameras can then be triangulated to locate the touch. This technology is growing in popularity, due to its scalability, versatility, and affordability, especially for larger units.
7. Dispersive signal technology
Introduced in 2002, this system uses sensors to detect the mechanical energy in the glass that occur due to a touch. Complex algorithms then interpret this information and provide the actual location of the touch. The technology claims to be unaffected by dust and other outside elements, including scratches. Since there is no need for additional elements on screen, it also claims to provide excellent optical clarity. Also, since mechanical vibrations are used to detect a touch event, any object can be used to generate these events, including fingers and styli. A downside is that after the initial touch the system cannot detect a motionless finger.
8.Acoustic pulse recognition
This system uses more than two piezoelectric transducers located at some positions of the screen to turn the mechanical energy of a touch (vibration) into an electronic signal. This signal is then converted into an audio file, and then compared to preexisting audio profile for every position on the screen. This system works without a grid of wires running through the screen, the touch screen itself is actually pure glass, giving it the optics and durability of the glass out of which it is made. It works with scratches and dust on the screen, and accuracy is very good. It does not need a conductive object to activate it. It is a major advantage for larger displays. As with the Dispersive Signal Technology system, after the initial touch this system cannot detect a motionless finger.
9. Frustrated total internal reflection
This optical system works by using the principle of total internal reflection to fill a refractive medium with light. When a finger or other soft object is pressed against the surface, the internal reflection light path is interrupted, making the light reflect outside of the medium and thus visible to a camera behind the medium.
10. IntelliTouch surface wave
IntelliTouch surface wave is the optical standard of touch. Its pure glass construction provides superior optical performance and makes it the most scratch-resistant technology available. It's nearly impossible to physically "wear out" this touchscreen. IntelliTouch is widely used in kiosk, gaming, and office automation applications and is available for both flat panel and CRT solutions.
Benefits
• Surface wave (also known as surface acoustic wave, or SAW) technology
• Pure-glass touchscreens for superior image clarity, resolution, and light transmission
• Durable, scratch-resistant glass surface—continues to work if scratched
• Stable "drift-free" operation—for touch response that's always accurate
• Finger, gloved hand, and soft stylus activation
• Fast touch response
• Sensitive touch response—recognizes location and amount of pressure applied
11. SecureTouch Surface Wave Touchscreens
Flat-screen SecureTouch products are made of extra-tough glass substrates that resist vandalism. These touchscreens incorporate the solid-glass and coating-free construction of Elo's proven IntelliTouch products.
How to connect touchscreen on your own computer?
The Add-On Kit can be easily mounted on ANY monitor / Laptops/POS systems and used for ANY mouse driven application.

It also help childrens to start learning how to use computer without the difficulty of using the mouse.

Easily mounts on ANY standard computer monitor with simple attachments.
Touchscreens Add-ons and Integrated Touchscreen Monitors

There is main two types of touchscreen products, touchscreen add-ons and integrated touchscreen monitors. Touchscreen add-ons are touchscreen panels that hang over an existing computer monitor. Integrated touchscreen monitors are computer displays that have the touchscreen built-in. Both product types work in the same way, basically as an input device like a mouse or trackpad.

Touchscreens As Input Device

All of the touchscreens that basically work like a mouse. Once the software driver for the touchscreen is installed, the touchscreen emulates mouse functions. Touching the screen is basically the same as clicking your mouse at the same point at the screen. When you touch the touchscreen, the mouse cursor will move to that point and make a mouse click. You can tap the screen twice to perform a double-click, and you can also drag your finger across the touchscreen to perform drag-and-drops. The touchscreens will normally emulate left mouse clicks. Through software, you can also switch the touchscreen to perform right mouse clicks instead.



Development in Touchscreen
Virtually all of the significant touchscreen technology patents were filed during the 1970s and 1980s and have expired. Touchscreen component manufacturing and product design are no longer encumbered by royalties or legalities with regard to patents and the manufacturing of touchscreen-enabled displays on all kinds of devices is widespread.
The development of multipoint touchscreens facilitated the tracking of more than one finger on the screen, thus operations that require more than one finger are possible. These devices also allow multiple users to interact with the touchscreen simultaneously.
With the growing acceptance of many kinds of products with an integral touchscreen interface the marginal cost of touchscreen technology is routinely absorbed into the products that incorporate it and is effectively eliminated. As typically occurs with any technology, touchscreen hardware and software has sufficiently matured and been perfected over more than three decades to the point where its reliability is unassailable. As such, touchscreen displays are found today in airplanes, automobiles, gaming consoles, machine control systems, appliances and handheld display devices of every kind.
The ability to accurately point on the screen itself is taking yet another step with the emerging graphics tablet/screen hybrids.
Ergonomics and usage
An ergonomic problem of touchscreens is their stress on human fingers when used for more than a few minutes at a time, since significant pressure can be required and the screen is non-flexible. This can be alleviated with the use of a pen or other device to add leverage, but the introduction of such items can sometimes be problematic depending on the desired use case (for example, public kiosks such as ATMs). Also, fine motor control is better achieved with a stylus, a finger being a rather broad and ambiguous point of contact with the screen.
Yet all of these ergonomic issues can be bypassed simply by using a different technique, provided that the user's fingernails are either short or sufficiently long. Rather than pressing with the soft skin of an outstretched fingertip, the finger is curled over, so that the top of the forward edge of a fingernail can be used instead. (The thumb is optionally used to provide support for the finger or for a long fingernail, from underneath.) The fingernail's hard, curved surface contacts the touchscreen at a single very small point. Therefore, much less finger pressure is needed, much greater precision is possible (approaching that of a stylus, with a little experience), much less skin oil is smeared onto the screen, and the fingernail can be silently moved across the screen with very little resistance, allowing for selecting text, moving windows, or drawing lines. (The human fingernail consists of keratin which has a hardness and smoothness similar to the tip of a stylus, and so will not typically scratch a touchscreen.) Alternately, very short stylus tips are available, which slip right onto the end of a finger; this increases visibility of the contact point with the screen. Oddly, with capacitive touch screens, the reverse problem applies in that individuals with long nails have reported problems getting adequate skin contact with the screen to register keystrokes (note that styluses do not work on capacitive touch screens nor do gloved fingers).
Future Of Multi-Input Touch Screen
We might heard of touch screen and often use in atm’s,mobile etc but that a standard touch screen allows one input at a time.Can you imagine what if this allows multiple people to use it and allows for Minority Report like features.This sort of screens are are recently demonstrate by Jefferson .Y.Han.Its really awesome have a look on this video
The display of these screen are really super cool as we use now a day’s on TFT display.
Whenever it launches on market, i wish to get one through Loyalty Cards,Well this experiments of multi-input touch screen is revolutionary in the market as it can create many platform for various instruments that needs multi-manpower.
29-11-2010, 06:47 PM
Post: #25
RE: touch screen technology report and ppt
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