RE: SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING PWM TECHNIQUE
speed control of dc motor using pwm technique [email protected] (Size: 3.7 MB / Downloads: 1073)
Today’s industries are increasingly demanding process automation in all sectors. Automation results into better quality, increased production an reduced costs. The variable speed drives, which can control the speed of A.C/D.C motors, are indispensable controlling elements in automation systems. Depending on the applications, some of them are fixed speed and some of the variable speed drives.
The variable speed drives, till a couple of decades back, had various limitations, such as poor efficiencies, larger space, lower speeds, etc., However, the advent power electronic devices such as power MOSFETs, IGBTs etc., and also with the introduction of micro -controllers with many features on the same silicon wafer, transformed the scene completely and today we have variable speed drive systems which are not only in the smaller in size but also very efficient, highly reliable and meeting all the stringent demands of various industries of modern era.
Direct currents (DC) motors have been used in variable speed drives for a long time. The versatile characteristics of dc motors can provide high starting torques which is required for traction drives. Control over a wide speed range, both below and above the rated speed can be very easily achieved. The methods of speed control are simpler and less expensive than those of alternating current motors.
There are different techniques available for the speed control of DC motors. The phase control method is widely adopted, but has certain limitations mainly it generates harmonics on the power line and it also has got p .f when operated lower speeds. The second method is pwm technique, which has got better advantages over the phase control.
In the proposed project, a 5 H.P DC motors circuitry is designed, and developed using pulse with modulation (PWM).The pulse width modulation can be achieved in several ways. In the present project, the PWM generation is done using micro- controller.
In order to have better speed regulation, it is required to have a feedback from the motor. The feedback can be taken either by using a tachogenerator or an optical encoder or the back EMF itself can be used .In present project, we implemented the feedback by using the EMF of the armature as the feedback signal.
The project proposed is a real time working project, and this can be further improvised by using the other safety features, such as field current, air gap magnetic flux, armature current, etc.,
1. DC MOTOR
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO SPEED CONTROL:
Speed control means intentional change of drive speed to a value required for performing the specific work process. This concept of speed control or adjustment should not be taken to include the natural change in speed which occurs due to change in the load on the shaft.
Any given piece of industrial equipment may have its speed change or Adjusted mechanically by means of stepped pulleys, sets of change gears, variable speed friction clutch mechanism and other mechanical devices. Historically it is proved to be the first step in transition from non adjustable speed to adjustable speed drive. The electrical speed control has many economical as well as engineering advantages over mechanical speed control
The nature of the speed control requirement for an industrial drive depends upon its type. Some drives may require continues variation of speed for the whole of the range from zero to full speed or over a portion of this range , while the others may require two or more fixed speeds
1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF DC MOTORS:
DC motors are classified into three types depending upon the way their field windings are excited. Field windings connections for the three types Of DC motors have been shown in figure
1.3 SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTORS:
The DC motors are in general much more adaptable speed drives than AC motors which are associated with a constant speed rotating field. Indeed one of the primary reasons for the strong competitive position of DC motors in modern industrial drives is the wide range of specified afforded we know the equation
N= K (E_b/ϕ)
=K (V-Ia Ra / ϕ)
Where V=supply voltage (volts)
Ia = armature current (amps)
Ra=armature resistance (ohms)
Φ=flux per pole (Weber)
This equation gives two methods of effective speed changes.i.e.
The variation of field excitation, if this causes in the flux per pole Φ and is known as the field control.
The variation of terminal voltage (V).this method is known as armature control.
1.4 SPEED CONTROL OF SHUNT MOTOR
1.4.1 FLUX CONTROL METHOD:
It is known that Nα1/ Φ by decreasing the flux, the can be increased and vice versa. Hence, name flux or field control method.
The flux of DC motor can be changed by changing I_sh with help of a shunt field rheostat. Since I_sh in relatively small, shunt field rheostat has to carry only a small, so that rheostat is small in size. This method therefore very efficient in non-interpolar machines the speed can be increased by this method in the ratio 2:1 any further weakening of flux Φ adversely affect the communication
And hence puts a limit to the maximum speed obtainable with this method in machines fitted with interlopes in ratio of maximum to minimum speeds of 6:1 is fairly common.