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01-03-2010, 12:58 PM
Post: #1
paper battery full report

.docx  paper battery.docx (Size: 71.82 KB / Downloads: 3244)

paper battery
A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nanotube s with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper. A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and supercapacitor , combining two components that are separate in traditional electronics . This combination allows the battery to provide both long-term, steady power production and bursts of energy. Non-toxic, flexible paper batteries have the potential to power the next generation of electronics, medical devices and hybrid vehicles, allowing for radical new designs and medical technologies.
Paper batteries may be folded, cut or otherwise shaped for different applications without any loss of integrity or efficiency . Cutting one in half halves its energy production. Stacking them multiplies power output. Early prototypes of the device are able to produce 2.5 volt s of electricity from a sample the size of a postage stamp.
The devices are formed by combining cellulose with an infusion of aligned carbon nanotubes that are each approximately one millionth of a centimeter thick. The carbon is what gives the batteries their black color. These tiny filaments act like the electrode s found in a traditional battery, conducting electricity when the paper comes into contact with an ionic liquid solution. Ionic liquids contain no water, which means that there is nothing to freeze or evaporate in extreme environmental conditions. As a result, paper batteries can function between -75 and 150 degrees Celsius.
One method of manufacture, developed by scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and MIT, begins with growing the nanotubes on a silicon substrate and then impregnating the gaps in the matrix with cellulose. Once the matrix has dried, the material can be peeled off of the substrate, exposing one end of the carbon nanotubes to act as an electrode . When two sheets are combined, with the cellulose sides facing inwards, a supercapacitor is formed that can be activated by the addition of the ionic liquid. This liquid acts as an electrolyte and may include salt-laden solutions like human blood, sweat or urine. The high cellulose content (over 90%) and lack of toxic chemicals in paper batteries makes the device both biocompatible and environmentally friendly, especially when compared to the traditional lithium ion battery used in many present-day electronic devices and laptops.
Widespread commercial deployment of paper batteries will rely on the development of more inexpensive manufacturing techniques for carbon nanotubes. As a result of the potentially transformative applications in electronics, aerospace, hybrid vehicles and medical science, however, numerous companies and organizations are pursuing the development of paper batteries. In addition to the developments announced in 2007 at RPI and MIT, researchers in Singapore announced that they had developed a paper battery powered by ionic solutions in 2005. NEC has also invested in R & D into paper batteries for potential applications in its electronic devices.
Specialized paper batteries could act as power sources for any number of devices implanted in humans and animals, including RFID tags, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems and pacemakers. A capacitor introduced into an organism could be implanted fully dry and then be gradudally exposed to bodily fluids over time to generate voltage. Paper batteries are also biodegradable, a need only partially addressed by current e-cycling and other electronics disposal methods increasingly advocated for by the green computing movement.

Paper battery offers future power
The black piece of paper can power a small light
Flexible paper batteries could meet the energy demands of the next generation of gadgets, says a team of researchers.
They have produced a sample slightly larger than a postage stamp that can store enough energy to illuminate a small light bulb.
But the ambition is to produce reams of paper that could one day power a car.
Professor Robert Linhardt, of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, said the paper battery was a glimpse into the future of power storage.
The team behind the versatile paper, which stores energy like a conventional battery, says it can also double as a capacitor capable of releasing sudden energy bursts for high-power applications.
Graphic: How a paper battery works
While a conventional battery contains a number of separate components, the paper battery integrates all of the battery components in a single structure, making it more energy efficient.
Integrated devices
The research appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
"Think of all the disadvantages of an old TV set with tubes," said Professor Linhardt, from the New York-based institute, who co-authored a report into the technology.
"The warm up time, power loss, component malfunction; you don't get those problems with integrated devices. When you transfer power from one component to another you lose energy. But you lose less energy in an integrated device."

The battery contains carbon nanotubes, each about one millionth of a centimetre thick, which act as an electrode. The nanotubes are embedded in a sheet of paper soaked in ionic liquid electrolytes, which conduct the electricity.
The flexible battery can function even if it is rolled up, folded or cut.
Although the power output is currently modest, Professor Linhardt said that increasing the output should be easy.
"If we stack 500 sheets together in a ream, that's 500 times the voltage. If we rip the paper in half we cut power by 50%. So we can control the power and voltage issue."
Because the battery consists mainly of paper and carbon, it could be used to power pacemakers within the body where conventional batteries pose a toxic threat.
"I wouldn't want the ionic liquid electrolytes in my body, but it works without them," said Professor Linhardt. "You can implant a piece of paper in the body and blood would serve as an electrolyte."
But Professor Daniel Sperling at University of California, Davis, an expert on alternative power sources for transport, is unconvinced.
'More difficult'
"Batteries and capacitors are being steadily improved, but electricity storage is much more difficult and expensive than liquid fuels and probably will be so forever," he said.
"The world is not going to change as a result of this new invention any time soon."
Professor Linhardt admitted that the new battery is still some way from the commercial market.
"The devices we're making are only a few inches across. We would have to scale up to sheets of newspaper size to make it commercially viable," he said. But at that scale, the voltage could be large enough to power a car, he said.
However, carbon nanotubes are very expensive, and batteries large enough to power a car are unlikely to be cost effective.
"I'm a strong enthusiast of electric vehicles, but it is going to take time to bring the costs down," said Professor Sperling.
But Professor Linhardt said integrated devices, like the paper battery, were the direction the world was moving.
"They are ultimately easier to manufacture, more environmentally friendly and usable in a wide range of devices," he said.
The ambition is to produce the paper battery using a newspaper-type roller printer.
Electricity is the flow of electrical power or electrons
1. Batteries produce electrons through a chemical reaction between electrolyte and metal in the traditional battery.
2. Chemical reaction in the paper battery is between electrolyte and carbon nanotubes.
3. Electrons collect on the negative terminal of the battery and flow along a connected wire to the positive terminal
4. Electrons must flow from the negative to the positive terminal for the chemical reaction to continue.

Paper battery
A paper battery is a battery engineered to use a paper-thin sheet of cellulose (which is the major constituent of regular paper, among other things) infused with aligned carbon nanotubes.[1] The nanotubes act as electrodes; allowing the storage devices to conduct electricity. The battery, which functions as both a lithium-ion battery and a supercapacitor, can provide a long, steady power output comparable to a conventional battery, as well as a supercapacitorâ„¢s quick burst of high energy -- and while a conventional battery contains a number of separate components, the paper battery integrates all of the battery components in a single structure, making it more energy efficient.
Development
The creation of this unique nanocomposite paper drew from a diverse pool of disciplines, requiring expertise in materials science, energy storage, and chemistry. In August 2007, a research team at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Drs. Robert Linhardt, the Ann and John H. Broadbent Senior Constellation Professor of Biocatalysis and Metabolic Engineering at Rensselaer; Pulickel M. Ajayan, professor of materials science and engineering; and Omkaram Nalamasu, professor of chemistry with a joint appointment in materials science and engineering) developed the paper battery. Senior research specialist Victor Pushparaj, along with postdoctoral research associates Shaijumon M. Manikoth, Ashavani Kumar, and Saravanababu Murugesan, were co-authors and lead researchers of the project. Other co-authors include research associate Lijie Ci and Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center Laboratory Manager Robert Vajtai.
The researchers used ionic liquid, essentially a liquid salt, as the battery™s electrolyte. The use of ionic liquid, which contains no water, means there™s nothing in the batteries to freeze or evaporate. This lack of water allows the paper energy storage devices to withstand extreme temperatures, Kumar said. It gives the battery the ability to function in temperatures up to 300 degrees Fahrenheit and down to 100 below zero. The use of ionic liquid also makes the battery extremely biocompatible; the team printed paper batteries without adding any electrolytes, and demonstrated that naturally occurring electrolytes in human sweat, blood, and urine can be used to activate the battery device. According to Pushparaj It™s a way to power a small device such as a pacemaker without introducing any harsh chemicals “ such as the kind that are typically found in batteries ” into the body.
Durability
The use of carbon nanotubes gives the paper battery extreme flexibility; the sheets can be rolled, twisted, folded, or cut into numerous shapes with no loss of integrity or efficiency, or stacked, like printer paper (or a Voltaic pile), to boost total output. As well, they can be made in a variety of sizes, from postage stamp to broadsheet. It™s essentially a regular piece of paper, but it™s made in a very intelligent way, said Linhardt, We™re not putting pieces together ” it™s a single, integrated device, he said. The components are molecularly attached to each other: the carbon nanotube print is embedded in the paper, and the electrolyte is soaked into the paper. The end result is a device that looks, feels, and weighs the same as paper.
Uses
The paper-like quality of the battery combined with the structure of the nanotubes embedded within gives them their light weight and low cost, making them attractive for portable electronics, aircraft, automobiles, and toys (such as model aircraft), while their ability to use electrolytes in blood make them potentially useful for medical devices such as pacemakers. The medical uses are particularly attractive because they do not contain any toxic materials and can be biodegradable; a major drawback of chemical cells.[2] However, Professor Sperling cautions that commercial applications may be a long way away, because nanotubes are still relatively expensive to fabricate. Currently they are making devices a few inches in size. In order to be commercially viable, they would like to be able to make them newspaper size; a size which, taken all together would be powerful enough to power a car.[3]
01-06-2010, 03:58 AM
Post: #2
RE: paper battery full report
sir plz give me the full report
01-06-2010, 08:42 AM
Post: #3
RE: paper battery full report
The report doc file is attached with this report at the beginning of the post

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
28-06-2010, 11:15 PM
Post: #4
RE: paper battery full report
i need a report on blood battery.i have to take tgis topic as my seminar so kindly reply
28-06-2010, 11:29 PM
Post: #5
RE: paper battery full report
blood battery is different with paper battery .please ask http://www.seminarprojectsnewthread.php?fid=29 here ..
generous users may help you

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
14-07-2010, 05:59 AM
Post: #6
RE: paper battery full report
plzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzHuh fast
14-07-2010, 09:24 PM
Post: #7
RE: paper battery full report
The report is in the file paper battery.docx posted in the first post of this thread. Download it.

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
16-07-2010, 06:57 AM
Post: #8
RE: paper battery full report
Please send me Full Report
17-07-2010, 11:15 AM
Post: #9
RE: paper battery full report
plz send me the full report of paper batery and also tell me ,this is new technology
plz send me latest technology based seminr topics and paper battery report is not complete .
10-08-2010, 03:16 PM
Post: #10
RE: paper battery full report
sir
plz give me seminar ppt for paper battery
is it relate to electronics????????????
i am a electronics student and given as my seminar report so plz help me..........
thank you!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
18-08-2010, 11:05 PM
Post: #11
RE: paper battery full report
plz post me the ppt for dis topic..
i wud b highly obliged to u..Smile
11-09-2010, 02:49 PM
Post: #12
RE: paper battery full report
sir,i need full report on paper battery.the presentation on this topic needs much more information.1 page of report is not enough to submitted at college faculties.so please please help me,i don't want to lose a chance to score good marks in this paper ......
17-09-2010, 04:50 PM
Post: #13
RE: paper battery full report
please give me the full report of paper battery,ppt&please explain the chemical reaction on paper battery
07-10-2010, 12:45 PM
Post: #14
RE: paper battery full report
paper battery full report



paper battery
A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nanotube s with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper. A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and supercapacitor , combining two components that are separate in traditional electronics . This combination allows the battery to provide both long-term, steady power production and bursts of energy. Non-toxic, flexible paper batteries have the potential to power the next generation of electronics, medical devices and hybrid vehicles, allowing for radical new designs and medical technologies.
Paper batteries may be folded, cut or otherwise shaped for different applications without any loss of integrity or efficiency . Cutting one in half halves its energy production. Stacking them multiplies power output. Early prototypes of the device are able to produce 2.5 volt s of electricity from a sample the size of a postage stamp.
The devices are formed by combining cellulose with an infusion of aligned carbon nanotubes that are each approximately one millionth of a centimeter thick. The carbon is what gives the batteries their black color. These tiny filaments act like the electrode s found in a traditional battery, conducting electricity when the paper comes into contact with an ionic liquid solution. Ionic liquids contain no water, which means that there is nothing to freeze or evaporate in extreme environmental conditions. As a result, paper batteries can function between -75 and 150 degrees Celsius.
One method of manufacture, developed by scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and MIT, begins with growing the nanotubes on a silicon substrate and then impregnating the gaps in the matrix with cellulose. Once the matrix has dried, the material can be peeled off of the substrate, exposing one end of the carbon nanotubes to act as an electrode . When two sheets are combined, with the cellulose sides facing inwards, a supercapacitor is formed that can be activated by the addition of the ionic liquid. This liquid acts as an electrolyte and may include salt-laden solutions like human blood, sweat or urine. The high cellulose content (over 90%) and lack of toxic chemicals in paper batteries makes the device both biocompatible and environmentally friendly, especially when compared to the traditional lithium ion battery used in many present-day electronic devices and laptops.
Widespread commercial deployment of paper batteries will rely on the development of more inexpensive manufacturing techniques for carbon nanotubes. As a result of the potentially transformative applications in electronics, aerospace, hybrid vehicles and medical science, however, numerous companies and organizations are pursuing the development of paper batteries. In addition to the developments announced in 2007 at RPI and MIT, researchers in Singapore announced that they had developed a paper battery powered by ionic solutions in 2005. NEC has also invested in R & D into paper batteries for potential applications in its electronic devices.
Specialized paper batteries could act as power sources for any number of devices implanted in humans and animals, including RFID tags, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems and pacemakers. A capacitor introduced into an organism could be implanted fully dry and then be gradudally exposed to bodily fluids over time to generate voltage. Paper batteries are also biodegradable, a need only partially addressed by current e-cycling and other electronics disposal methods increasingly advocated for by the green computing movement.

Paper battery offers future power
The black piece of paper can power a small light
Flexible paper batteries could meet the energy demands of the next generation of gadgets, says a team of researchers.
They have produced a sample slightly larger than a postage stamp that can store enough energy to illuminate a small light bulb.
But the ambition is to produce reams of paper that could one day power a car.
Professor Robert Linhardt, of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, said the paper battery was a glimpse into the future of power storage.
The team behind the versatile paper, which stores energy like a conventional battery, says it can also double as a capacitor capable of releasing sudden energy bursts for high-power applications.
Graphic: How a paper battery works
While a conventional battery contains a number of separate components, the paper battery integrates all of the battery components in a single structure, making it more energy efficient.
Integrated devices
The research appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
"Think of all the disadvantages of an old TV set with tubes," said Professor Linhardt, from the New York-based institute, who co-authored a report into the technology.
"The warm up time, power loss, component malfunction; you don't get those problems with integrated devices. When you transfer power from one component to another you lose energy. But you lose less energy in an integrated device."

The battery contains carbon nanotubes, each about one millionth of a centimetre thick, which act as an electrode. The nanotubes are embedded in a sheet of paper soaked in ionic liquid electrolytes, which conduct the electricity.
The flexible battery can function even if it is rolled up, folded or cut.
Although the power output is currently modest, Professor Linhardt said that increasing the output should be easy.
"If we stack 500 sheets together in a ream, that's 500 times the voltage. If we rip the paper in half we cut power by 50%. So we can control the power and voltage issue."
Because the battery consists mainly of paper and carbon, it could be used to power pacemakers within the body where conventional batteries pose a toxic threat.
"I wouldn't want the ionic liquid electrolytes in my body, but it works without them," said Professor Linhardt. "You can implant a piece of paper in the body and blood would serve as an electrolyte."
But Professor Daniel Sperling at University of California, Davis, an expert on alternative power sources for transport, is unconvinced.
'More difficult'
"Batteries and capacitors are being steadily improved, but electricity storage is much more difficult and expensive than liquid fuels and probably will be so forever," he said.
"The world is not going to change as a result of this new invention any time soon."
Professor Linhardt admitted that the new battery is still some way from the commercial market.
"The devices we're making are only a few inches across. We would have to scale up to sheets of newspaper size to make it commercially viable," he said. But at that scale, the voltage could be large enough to power a car, he said.
However, carbon nanotubes are very expensive, and batteries large enough to power a car are unlikely to be cost effective.
"I'm a strong enthusiast of electric vehicles, but it is going to take time to bring the costs down," said Professor Sperling.
But Professor Linhardt said integrated devices, like the paper battery, were the direction the world was moving.
"They are ultimately easier to manufacture, more environmentally friendly and usable in a wide range of devices," he said.
The ambition is to produce the paper battery using a newspaper-type roller printer.
Electricity is the flow of electrical power or electrons
1. Batteries produce electrons through a chemical reaction between electrolyte and metal in the traditional battery.
2. Chemical reaction in the paper battery is between electrolyte and carbon nanotubes.
3. Electrons collect on the negative terminal of the battery and flow along a connected wire to the positive terminal
4. Electrons must flow from the negative to the positive terminal for the chemical reaction to continue.

Paper battery
A paper battery is a battery engineered to use a paper-thin sheet of cellulose (which is the major constituent of regular paper, among other things) infused with aligned carbon nanotubes.[1] The nanotubes act as electrodes; allowing the storage devices to conduct electricity. The battery, which functions as both a lithium-ion battery and a supercapacitor, can provide a long, steady power output comparable to a conventional battery, as well as a supercapacitor’s quick burst of high energy -- and while a conventional battery contains a number of separate components, the paper battery integrates all of the battery components in a single structure, making it more energy efficient.
Development
The creation of this unique nanocomposite paper drew from a diverse pool of disciplines, requiring expertise in materials science, energy storage, and chemistry. In August 2007, a research team at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Drs. Robert Linhardt, the Ann and John H. Broadbent Senior Constellation Professor of Biocatalysis and Metabolic Engineering at Rensselaer; Pulickel M. Ajayan, professor of materials science and engineering; and Omkaram Nalamasu, professor of chemistry with a joint appointment in materials science and engineering) developed the paper battery. Senior research specialist Victor Pushparaj, along with postdoctoral research associates Shaijumon M. Manikoth, Ashavani Kumar, and Saravanababu Murugesan, were co-authors and lead researchers of the project. Other co-authors include research associate Lijie Ci and Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center Laboratory Manager Robert Vajtai.
The researchers used ionic liquid, essentially a liquid salt, as the battery’s electrolyte. The use of ionic liquid, which contains no water, means there’s nothing in the batteries to freeze or evaporate. “This lack of water allows the paper energy storage devices to withstand extreme temperatures,” Kumar said. It gives the battery the ability to function in temperatures up to 300 degrees Fahrenheit and down to 100 below zero. The use of ionic liquid also makes the battery extremely biocompatible; the team printed paper batteries without adding any electrolytes, and demonstrated that naturally occurring electrolytes in human sweat, blood, and urine can be used to activate the battery device. According to Pushparaj “It’s a way to power a small device such as a pacemaker without introducing any harsh chemicals – such as the kind that are typically found in batteries — into the body.”
Durability
The use of carbon nanotubes gives the paper battery extreme flexibility; the sheets can be rolled, twisted, folded, or cut into numerous shapes with no loss of integrity or efficiency, or stacked, like printer paper (or a Voltaic pile), to boost total output. As well, they can be made in a variety of sizes, from postage stamp to broadsheet. “It’s essentially a regular piece of paper, but it’s made in a very intelligent way,” said Linhardt, “We’re not putting pieces together — it’s a single, integrated device,” he said. “The components are molecularly attached to each other: the carbon nanotube print is embedded in the paper, and the electrolyte is soaked into the paper. The end result is a device that looks, feels, and weighs the same as paper.”
Uses
The paper-like quality of the battery combined with the structure of the nanotubes embedded within gives them their light weight and low cost, making them attractive for portable electronics, aircraft, automobiles, and toys (such as model aircraft), while their ability to use electrolytes in blood make them potentially useful for medical devices such as pacemakers. The medical uses are particularly attractive because they do not contain any toxic materials and can be biodegradable; a major drawback of chemical cells.[2] However, Professor Sperling cautions that commercial applications may be a long way away, because nanotubes are still relatively expensive to fabricate. Currently they are making devices a few inches in size. In order to be commercially viable, they would like to be able to make them newspaper size; a size which, taken all together would be powerful enough to power a car.[3]
11-12-2010, 11:36 AM
Post: #15
RE: paper battery full report
send me more details of paper battery
13-12-2010, 03:04 PM
Post: #16
RE: paper battery full report
please go through the following thread too
http://www.seminarprojectsThread-paper-battery?page=2
14-12-2010, 08:20 PM
Post: #17
RE: paper battery full report
i require ppt and full report for this n inf about this plzzz
16-12-2010, 11:20 AM
Post: #18
RE: paper battery full report
hi
previous pages containing details. you please visit them
30-12-2010, 12:26 PM
Post: #19
RE: paper battery full report
i want full report on paper battery
31-12-2010, 11:36 AM
Post: #20
RE: paper battery full report
helloo
this thread containing full report on paper battery. please go through all of the pages.
01-01-2011, 01:15 PM
Post: #21
RE: paper battery full report
pls send me the full report of paper battery
10-01-2011, 12:52 AM
Post: #22
RE: paper battery full report
:)hhsauwhhdbfghdhghwevgsafsdsagdaassfdcccxc
10-01-2011, 05:54 AM
Post: #23
RE: paper battery full report
Hi rubeez,
Please go through all the pages of this thread. The report can be got from there.
07-02-2011, 07:21 PM
Post: #24
RE: paper battery full report
can u plz send me the entire ppt on paper battery..
thank u
12-03-2011, 11:25 AM
Post: #25
RE: paper battery full report

.ppt  seminar.ppt (Size: 4.78 MB / Downloads: 610)
Cellulose Paper + Nano-technology
An Overview of the battery technology that powers our mobile society.
INTRODUCTION
Battery Chemistry

Electrochemical reaction - a chemical reaction between elements which creates electrons.
Oxidation occurs on the metals (“electrodes”), which creates the electrons.
Electrons are transferred down the pile via the saltwater paper (the “electrolyte”).
A charge is introduced at one pole, which builds as it moves down the pile.
• Recharge-ability & the “memory effect”
Recharge-ability: basically, when the direction of electron discharge (negative to positive) is reversed, restoring power.
The Memory Effect: (generally) When a battery is repeatedly recharged before it has discharged more than half of its power, it will “forget” its original power capacity.
Cadmium crystals are the culprit! (NiCd)
• Lithium (Ion) Battery Development
In the 1970’s, Lithium metal was used but its instability rendered it unsafe and impractical. Lithium-cobalt oxide and graphite are now used as the lithium-Ion-moving electrodes.
The Lithium-Ion battery has a slightly lower energy density than Lithium metal, but is much safer. Introduced by Sony in 1991.
• Advantages of Using
Li-Ion Batteries
POWER – High energy density means greater power in a smaller package.
160% greater than NiMH
220% greater than NiCd
HIGHER VOLTAGE – a strong current allows it to power complex mechanical devices.
LONG SHELF-LIFE – only 5% discharge loss per month.
 10% for NiMH, 20% for NiCd
• Disadvantages of Li-Ion
EXPENSIVE -- 40% more than NiCd.
DELICATE -- battery temp must be monitored from within (which raises the price), and sealed particularly well.
REGULATIONS -- when shipping Li-Ion batteries in bulk (which also raises the price).
Class 9 miscellaneous hazardous material
UN Manual of Tests and Criteria (III, 38.3)
• Environmental Impact of Li-Ion Batteries
Rechargeable batteries are often recyclable.
Oxidized Lithium is non-toxic, and can be extracted from the battery, neutralized, and used as feedstock for new Li-Ion batteries.
• The Intersection
“In terms of weight and size, batteries have become one of the limiting factors in the development of electronic devices.”
“The problem with...lithium batteries is that none of the existing electrode materials alone can deliver all the required performance characteristics including high capacity, higher operating voltage, and long cycle life. Consequently, the other way is to optimize available electrode materials by designing new composite structures on the nanoscale.”
• “Nano”-Science and
-Technology
The attempt to manufacture and control objects at the atomic and molecular level (i.e. 100 nanometers or smaller).
1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter (10-9)
1 nanometer : 1 meter :: 1 marble : Earth
1 sheet of paper = 100,000 nanometers
• Nano + Li-Ion = ?
Nanotechnology and Li-Ion applications in the commercial sector are apparent...
lighter, more powerful batteries increase user mobility and equipment life.
DeWalt 36volt cordless power tools
Nanotechnology & Li-Ion applications in the residential sector are not so obvious...
Micro-generated energy storage?
Micro-Generated Energy Storage
Li-Ion batteries’ high energy density allows batteries them to power complex machinery.
Li-Ion batteries recharge quickly and hold their charge longer, which provides flexibility to the micro-generator.
particularly helpful for wind and solar generators!
Lightness, and power per volume allow for storage and design flexibility.
WHAT IS A CARBON NANOTUBE?
• A carbon nanotube is a tube-shaped material, made of carbon, having a diameter measuring on the nanometer scale.
• A nanometer is one billionth of the meter or about one ten-thousandth the thickness of the human hair.
• The graphite layer appears somewhat like a rolled-up chicken wire with a continuous unbroken hexagonal mesh and carbon molecules at the apexes of the hexagons.
• Carbon Nanotubes have many structures, differing in length, thickness, and in the type of helicity and number of layers.
• Although they are formed from essentially the same graphite sheet, their electrical characteristics differ depending on these variations, acting either as metals or as semiconductors.
• As a group, Carbon Nanotubes typically have diameters ranging from <1 nm up to 50 nm. Their lengths are typically several microns, but recent advancements have made the nanotubes much longer, and measured in centimeters.
• . They are among the stiffest and strongest fibers known, and have remarkable electronic properties and many other unique characteristics.
• Carbon Nanotubes can be categorized by their structures:
 Single-wall Nanotubes (SWNT)
 Multi-wall Nanotubes (MWNT)
 Double-wall Nanotubes (DWNT)
• How Does Nanocyl Produce Carbon Nanotubes?
• Nanocyl uses the "Catalytic Carbon Vapour Deposition" method for producing Carbon Nanotube Technologies.
• It involves growing nanotubes on substrates, thus enabling uniform, large-scale production of the highest-quality carbon nanotubes worldwide.
• This proven industrial process is well known for its reliability and scalability.
What are the Properties of a Carbon Nanotube?
• The intrinsic mechanical and transport properties of Carbon Nanotubes make them the ultimate carbon fibers.
• The following tables compare these properties to other engineering materials. Mechanical properties of engineering fibers are:
• Transport properties of conductive materials are:
EXAMPLE:
• Let us take an example how the ionic liquid is used as an electrolyte for the paper batteries.
• As the ionic liquid does not contain any water, there will be nothing to evaporate and the use of ionic liquid in making paper batteries makes the battery to withstand at extreme temperatures.
• Let us see how the sulphuric acid acts as an electrolyte by studying its properties.
• Sulphuric acid or sulfuric acid is a strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4. Its historical name is vitriol.
• It is soluble in water at all concentrations. It has many applications and is a basic substance in the chemical industry.
Polarity and conductivity of H2SO4:
• H2SO4 is a very polar liquid, having a dielectric constant of around 100.
• It has a high electrical conductivity caused by dissociation through protonating itself, a process known as autopyrolysis.
Physical properties:
Chemical properties:
Reaction with water:

• The hydration reaction of sulfuric acid is highly exothermic.
• One should always add the acid to the water rather than the water to the acid. Because the reaction is in an equilibrium that favors the rapid protonation of water, addition of acid to the water ensures that the acid is the limiting reagent.
• This reaction is best thought of as the formation of hydronium ions:
• H2SO4 + H2O → H3O+ + HSO4−
• HSO4− + H2O → H3O+ + SO42−
• Because the hydration of sulfuric acid is thermodynamically favorable, sulfuric acid is an excellent dehydrating agent.
• Concentrated sulfuric acid reacts with sodium chloride, and gives hydrogen chloride gas and sodium bisulfate:
• NaCl + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + HCl
• Dilute H2SO4 attacks iron, aluminium, zinc, manganese, magnesium and nickel, but reactions with tin and copper require the acid to be hot and concentrated.
• Lead and tungsten, however, are resistant to sulfuric acid.
• The reaction with iron shown below is typical for most of these metals, but the reaction with tin produces sulfur dioxide rather than hydrogen.
• Fe (s) + H2SO4 (aq) → H2 (g) + FeSO4 (aq)
• Sn (s) + 2 H2SO4 (aq) → SnSO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (l) + SO2 (g)
• These reactions may be taken as typical: the hot concentrated acid generally acts as an oxidizing agent whereas the dilute acid acts a typical acid.
• Hence hot concentrated acid reacts with tin, zinc and copper to produce the salt, water and sulfur dioxide, whereas the dilute acid reacts with metals high in the reactivity series to produce a salt and hydrogen.
• Concentrated sulfuric acid has a very strong affinity for water. It is sometimes used as a drying agent and can be used to dehydrate (chemically remove water from) many compounds, e.g., carbohydrates.
• When the concentrated acid mixes with water, large amounts of heat are released.
• Dilute sulfuric acid is a strong acid and a good electrolyte; it is highly ionized, much of the heat released in dilution coming from hydration of the hydrogen ions.
• The dilute acid has most of the properties of common strong acids. It turns blue litmus red.
• It reacts with many metals (e.g., with zinc), releasing hydrogen gas, H2, and forming the sulfate of the metal.
• It reacts with most hydroxides and oxides, with some carbonates and sulfides, and with some salts. Since it is dibasic (i.e., it has two replaceable hydrogen atoms in each molecule).
• The Fe3+ produced can be precipitated as the hydroxide or hydrous oxide:
• Fe3+ (aq) + 3 H2O → Fe(OH)3 (s) + 3 H+
Summary:
• In case of the lead-acid batteries, the RAYON serves as an electrolyte. But the rayon is made with sulphuric acid. It contains 33% of H2SO4 and with specific gravity 1.25, and is commonly called battery acid.
• As the sulphuric acid is a strong acid and a good electrolyte, it acts a one of the electrolytes in the manufacture of the paper batteries.
• Due to its better properties that is physical and chemical properties and the reactions with water and with other reagents, keeping all this in consideration, the sulphuric acid is used as one of electrolytes of the paper battery.
• Thus in case of other ionic liquid also, we must consider all these properties, to make it use for the purpose of making paper batteries
• uses
• Applications
CONCLUSION
• Finally, an interesting idea...
Background:
battery research results in annual capacity gains of approximately 6%
Moore’s Law: The number of transistors on a computer microchip will double every two years. (40 years of proof!)
Idea: If battery technology had developed at the same rate, a heavy duty car battery would be the size of a penny.
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