Material & Energy Balance
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The aim of this project is to produce 2000 metric ton per annum of phtalic anhydride (PAN).
Your main objective in this work is to generate a process flow design (PFD) and conduct the
material and energy balances for the phtalic anhydride (PAN) production.
Phtalic anhydride (PAN) is produced through an oxidation of o-xylene with the help of vanadium
pentaoxide catalyst. Process reactants, air and o-xylene enter into the system at 25°C and 1 atm in
two separate streams. Air, in an excess form is mixed with the o-xylene before entering a tubular
fixed bed reactor at 350°C and 3 atm. The oxidation process occurs at isothermal condition
producing phtalic anhydride (?8?4?3) as the main product and maleic anhydride (?4?2?3) as the
side product. The reactions involved in the reactor are the following:
Main reaction: ?8?10 + 3?2 → ?8?4?3 + ?2?
By − product reaction: ?8?10 + 7.5?2 → ?4?2?3 + 4??2 + 4?2?
All products leaving the reactors are in vapor phase enter a condenser where the liquid products
containing phtalic anhydride, maleic anhydride, o-xylene and water are separated from the gas
products at isobaric condition. The gases containing N2, O2 and CO2 leave the condenser as the
gas effluents. Meanwhile, the liquid products from the condenser undergo a series of separation
units to recover the phtalic anhydride and the maleic anhydride. A stream containing o-xylene rich
is recycled back to the system by connecting to the fresh feed of o-xylene.
1) Draw a process flow diagram (PFD) for the phtalic anhydride (PAN) production.
2) Include appropriate compressor/pump and heater/cooler in your system.
3) State your assumptions for the calculations.
4) Provide references for process variables (temperature, pressure, conversion, selectivity,
composition) used in your calculations.
5) Perform the material balance for every process unit involved.
6) Conduct the energy balance to evaluate amount of heat Q and/or W required/removed for
every process unit involved.
This project will be evaluated based on the following distribution:
Report – 70%
Interview – 20%
Peer Evaluation – 10%
Report should contains the following:
Part 1 Introduction
Introduction of the product
Application of the product
Market survey – Supply and demand of the product worldwide, major producers, price, etc
Screening of synthesis route – list at least 2 possible synthesis routes for producing the
product. Discuss the feasibility of the route based on several factors: such as availability of
raw materials, complexity of the process, effectiveness/efficiency of the process,
preliminary safety and environmental issues.
Part 2: Material Balance and Energy Balance Calculations (Manual & Excel)
Draw the process flow diagram with all streams numbered.
Do the material and energy balance and show clearly all the manual calculations. State any
assumption you have made in your calculations.
Conduct the material and energy balance in MS Excel. Make sure that the calculations are
flexible for any value of basis.
Summarized all stream compositions in a table.
Reminder: A softcopy for MS Excel calculation must be submitted together with this