MAIN COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION
1461047804-SyllabusPPSCPSCSCCEMains.pdf (Size: 567.25 KB / Downloads: 2)
2. The main Examination is intended to assess the overall intellectual traits and depth of
understanding of candidates rather than merely the range of their information and memory. Total
number of questions in the question papers of optional subjects will be eight. All questions will
carry equal marks. Each paper will be divided into two parts, viz. Part A and Part B, each part
containing four questions. Out of eight questions, five questions are to be attempted. One question
in each part will be compulsory. Candidates will be required to answer three more questions out
of remaining six questions, taking at least one question from each Part. In this way, at least two
questions will be attempted from each Part i.e. one compulsory question plus one more.
3. The scope of the syllabus for optional subject papers for the examination is broadly of the honours
degree level i.e. a level higher than the bachelor’s degree and lower than the master’s degree. In
the case of Engineering, Medical Science and Law, the level corresponds to the bachelor's degree.
4. The main competitive examination shall include compulsory and optional subjects and every
candidate shall take all the compulsory subjects and two of the optional subjects. A candidate
shall specify in his application form the optional subjects he desires to take.
5. The main examination will consist of written examination and an interview test. The written
examination will consist of 9 papers of conventional essay type in the subjects set out in
Regulation 1 above.
6. A candidate shall answer the question papers other than the language paper, in English medium or
in Punjabi medium.
7. No candidate shall be eligible to appear in the viva voce test unless he obtains 45 per cent marks
in the aggregate of all subject including at least 33 per cent marks in Punjabi (in Gurmukhi Script)
: provided that if at any main competitive examination a sufficient number of candidates do not
obtain 45 per cent marks in the aggregate, the Commission may at their discretion lower this
percentage to not below 40 per cent, percentage for the language paper, i.e. Punjabi in Gurmukhi
Script, remaining unchanged.
8. No candidate shall be considered to have qualified in the main competitive examination unless he
obtains at least 45 per cent marks in the aggregate in all subjects including viva voce except in the
case of any main competitive examination for which this percentage has been lowered to not less
than 40 per cent by the Commission under the proviso to regulation 7 in which case the qualifying
percentage shall be as determined by the Commission.
9. If a candidate’s handwriting is not easily legible, a deduction which may be considerable may be
made on this account from the total marks otherwise accruing to him/her.
10. Credit will be given for orderly effective and exact expression combined with due economy of
words, in all subjects of the examination.
11. Names of qualified and unqualified candidates shall be arranged in order of merit according to the
aggregate marks obtained at the main competitive examination.
12. Ex-servicemen category candidates are required to appear only in the Compulsory subjects, i.e.,
Paper I, II, III, IV & V. LDESM category candidates shall have to appear in all the papers,
13. The candidates must list, in order of preference, in the space provided in the application form for
the Main Competitive Examination the service/post they wish to join.
Note.—In the event of tie order of merit shall be determined in accordance with highest marks
secured in viva voce.
14. The candidates securing the highest aggregate marks in the written part of the Main Competitive
Examination, numbering not more than three times the number of vacancies, shall be called for
the viva voce test.
15. Candidates shall specify in their application form the optional subjects they desire to take. No
change in the choice of options will be permitted under any circumstances.
16. The main examination shall include Compulsory and Optional Subjects as under :—
PAPER IV & V - GENERAL STUDIES
The nature and standard of questions in the General Studies paper will be such that a welleducated
person will be able to answer them without any specialised study. The questions will be such
as to test a candidate's general awareness of a variety of subjects, which will have relevance for a
career in Civil Services. The questions are likely to test the candidate's basic understandings of all
relevant issues, and ability to analyze and take a view on conflicting socio- economic goals, objectives
and demands. The candidates must give relevant, meaningful and succinct answers.
1. History of Modern Indian and Indian Culture :
The History of Modern India will cover history of the Country from about the middle of
nineteenth century and would also include questions on important personalities who shaped the
freedom movement and social reforms. The part relating to Indian culture will cover all aspects of
Indian culture from the ancient to modern times as well as principal features of literature, arts and
2. Geography of India :
In this part, questions will be on the physical, economic and social geography of India.
3. Constitution of India and Indian Polity :
This part will include questions on the Constitution of India as well as all constitutional, legal and
administrative and other issues emerging from the politico- administrative system prevalent in the
4. Current National Issues and Topics of Social Relevance :
This part is intended to test the candidate's awareness of current national issues and topics of
social relevance in present-day India, such as the following :
(i) The Indian economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth,
development and employment.
(ii) Issues arising from the social and economic exclusion of large sections from the benefits of
(iii) Other issues related to development and management of human resource.
(iv) Health issues including the management of Public Health, Health Education and ethical
concerns regarding health care, medical research and pharmaceuticals.
(v) Law enforcement, internal security and related issues such as the preservation of communal
(vi) Issues relating to good governance and accountability to the citizens including the
maintenance of human rights and of probility in public life.
(vii) Environmental issues, ecological preservation, conservation of natural resources and
5. Punjab Economy and People; its Social Economic and Cultural Institutions; and its
India and the World :
This part will include questions to test candidate’s awareness of India's relationship with the
world in various spheres such as the following :—
Foreign Affairs with special emphasis on India's relations with neighbouring countries and in the
Security and defence related matters.
Nuclear policy, issues and conflicts.
The Indian diaspora and its contribution to the India and the World.
2. India's Economic Interaction with the World :
In this part, questions will be economic and trade issues such as foreign trade, foreign investment,
economic and diplomacy issues relating to oil, gas and energy flows; the role and functions of
I.M.F. world Bank, W.T.O., WIPO etc., which influence India’s economic interaction with other
countries and international institutions.
3. Developments in the field of Science and Technology, IT and Space :
In this part, questions will test the candidate's awareness of the development in the field of science
and technology, information technology, space and basic ideas about computers, robotics,
nanotechnology, biotechnology and related issues regarding intectual property rights.
4. International Affairs and institutions :
This part include questions on important events in the world affairs and on international
5. Statistical analysis, graphs and diagrams :
This part will test the candidate's ability to draw conclusions from information presented in
statistical, graphical or diagrammatical from and to interpret them.
PAPER - I
Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation.
Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Agro ecology;
cropping pattern as indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards to
crops, animals and humans. Climate change – International conventions and global initiatives. Green
house effect and global warming. Advance tools for ecosystem analysis – Remote sensing (RS) and
Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of high-yielding and shortduration
varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Concepts of various cropping and farming systems.
Organic and Precision farming. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil
seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder crops.
Important features and scope of various types of forestry plantations such as social forestry, agroforestry,
and natural forests. Propagation of forest plants. Forest products, Agro forestry and value
addition. Conservation of forest flora and fauna.
Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various crops; their multiplications;
cultural, biological, and chemical control of weeds.
Soil-physical, chemical and biological properties. Processes and factors of soil formation. Soils of
India. Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity.
Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants. Principles of soil fertility,
soil testing and fertilizer recommendations, integrated nutrient management.
Biofertilizers. Losses of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen
fixation in soils. Efficient phosphorus and potassium use. Problem soils and their reclamation. Soil
factors affecting greenhouse gas emission.
Soil conservation, integrated watershed management. Soil erosion and its management. Dry land
agriculture and its problems. Technology for stabilizing agriculture production in rain fed areas.
Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and
means of reducing run-off losses of irrigation water. Rainwater harvesting. Drip and sprinkler
irrigation. Drainage of waterlogged soils, quality of irrigation water, effect of industrial effluents on
soil and water pollution. Irrigation projects in India. Farm management, scope, importance and
characteristics, farm planning. Optimum resource use and budgeting. Economics of different types of
farming systems. Marketing management – strategies for development, market intelligence. Price
fluctuations and their cost; role of co-operatives in agricultural economy; types and systems of
farming and factors affecting them. Agricultural price policy. Crop Insurance.
Agricultural extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programmes,
socio-economic survey and status of big, small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural
labourers. Training programmes for extension workers. Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVK) in
dissemination of Agricultural technologies. Non Government Organization (NGO) and self-help
group approach for rural development.
PAPER - II
Cell structure, function and cell cycle. Synthesis, structure and function of genetic material. Laws of
heredity. Chromosome structure, chromosomal aberrations, linkage and cross-over and their
significance in recombination breeding. Polyploidy, euploids and aneuploids. Mutations - and their
role in crop improvement. Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, classification and their
application in crop improvement. Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked, sex-influenced and sex-limited
History of plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, selfing and crossing techniques. Origin, evolution
and domestication of crop plants, center of origin, law of homologous series, crop genetic resources—
conservation and utilization. Application of principles of plant breeding, improvement of crop plants.
Molecular markers and their application in plant improvement. Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass and
recurrent selections, combining ability, its significance in plant breeding. Heterosis and its
exploitation. Somatic hybridization. Breeding for disease and pest resistance. Role of interspecific and
intergeneric hybridization. Role of genetic engineering and biotechnology in crop improvement.
Genetically modified crop plants.
Seed production and processing technologies. Seed certification, seed testing and storage. DNA finger
printing and seed registration. Role of public and private sectors in seed production and marketing.
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) issues, WTO issues and its impact on Agriculture.
Principles of Plant Physiology with reference to plant nutrition, absorption, translocation and
metabolism of nutrients. Soil-water-plant relationship.
Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis—modern concepts and factors affecting the process,
aerobic and anaerobic respiration; C3
and CAM mechanisms. Carbohydrate, protein and fat
metabolism. Growth and development; photoperiodism and vernalilzation. Plant growth substances
and their role in crop production. Physiology of seed development and germination; dormancy. Stress
physiology—draught, salt and water stress.
Major fruits, plantation crops, vegetables, spices and flower crops. Package practices of major
horticultural crops. Protected cultivation and high tech horticulture. Post harvest technology and value
addition of fruits and vegetables. Landscaping and commercial floriculture. Medicinal and aromatic
plants. Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition.
Diagnosis of pests and diseases of field crops, vegetables, orchard and plantation crops and their
economic importance. Classification of pests and diseases and their management. Integrated pest and
disease management. Storage pests and their management. Biological control of pests and diseases.
Epidemiology and forecasting of major crop pests and diseases. Plant quarantine measures. Pesticides,
their formulation and modes of action.
Food production and consumption trends in India. Food security and growing population—vision
2020. Reasons for grain surplus. National and international food policies. Production, procurement,
distribution constraints. Availability of food grains, per capita expenditure on food. Trends in poverty,
Public Distribution System and Below Poverty Line population, Targeted Public Distribution System
(PDS), policy implementation in context to globalization. Processing constraints. Relation of food
production to National Dietary Guidelines and food consumption pattern. Food based dietary
approaches to eliminate hunger. Nutrient deficiency —Micro nutrient deficiency : Protein Energy
Malnutrition or Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PEM or PCM), Micro nutrient deficiency and HRD in
context of work capacity of women and children. Food grain productivity and food security.
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE
PAPER – I
1. Animal Nutrition:
1.1 Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Direct and indirect calorimetry. Carbon—
nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter methods. Systems for expressing energy value of
foods in ruminants, pigs and poultry. Energy requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy,
lactation, egg, wool, and meat production.
1.2 Latest advances in protein nutrition. Energy protein interrelationships. Evaluation of protein
quality. Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets. Protein requirements for maintenance,
growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool and meat production.
1.3 Major and trace minerals—Their sources, physiological functions and deficiency symptoms.
Toxic minerals. Mineral interactions. Role of fat-soluble and water—soluble vitamins in the
body, their sources and deficiency symptoms.
1.4 Feed additives—methane inhibitors, probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics, hormones,
oligosaccharides, antioxidants, emulsifiers, mould inhibitors, buffers etc. Use and abuse of
growth promoters like hormones and antibiotics—latest concepts.
1.5 Conservation of fodders. Storage of feeds and feed ingredients. Recent advances in feed
technology and feed processing. Anti–nutritional and toxic factors present in livestock feeds.
Feed analysis and quality control. Digestibility trials—direct, indirect and indicator methods.
Predicting feed intake in grazing animals.
1.6 Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Balanced rations. Feeding of calves,
pregnant, work animals and breeding bulls. Strategies for feeding milch animals during
different stages of lactation cycle. Effect of feeding on milk composition. Feeding of goats for
meat and milk production. Feeding of sheep for meat and wool production.
1.7 Swine Nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Creep, starter, grower and finisher rations. Feeding of
pigs for lean meat production. Low cost rations for swine.
1.8 Poultry nutrition. Special features of poultry nutrition. Nutrient requirements for meat and egg
production. Formulation of rations for different classes of layers and broilers.
2. Animal Physiology:
2.1 Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration, excretion. Endocrine glands in health and
2.2 Blood constituents.—Properties and functions—blood cell formation-Haemoglobin synthesis
and chemistry-plasma proteins production, classification and properties, coagulation of blood;
Haemorrhagic disorders-anticoagulants-blood groups-Blood volume-Plasma expanders-Buffer
systems in blood. Biochemical tests and their significance in disease diagnosis.
2.3 Circulation.—Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle, heart sounds, heart beat, electrocardiograms.
Work and efficiency of heart-effect of ions on heart function-metabolism of cardiac muscle,
nervous and chemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood
pressure and hypertension, osmotic regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of
circulation, shock. Coronary and pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier—Cerebrospinal
fluid- circulation in birds.
2.4 Respiration.—Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases –neural control of
respiration-chemo-receptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds.
2.5 Excretion-Structure and function of kidney-formation of urine-methods of studying renal
function-renal regulation of acid-base balance: physiological constituents of urine-renal failure-
passive venous congestion-Urinary secretion in chicken-Sweat glands and their function. Biochemical
test for urinary dysfunction.
2.6 Endocrine glands.—Functional disorders their symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis of hormones,
mechanism and control of secretion- hormonal receptors-classification and function.
2.7 Growth and Animal Production- Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation, growth curves,
measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality.
2.8 Physiology of Milk Production.—Reproduction and Digestion—Current status of hormonal
control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection, Male and Female
reproductive organs, their components and functions. Digestive organs and their functions.
2.9 Environmental Physiology.—Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of
adaptation, environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms involved in animal behaviour,
climatology – various parameters and their importance. Animal ecology. Physiology of
behaviour. Effect of stress on health and production.
3. Animal Reproduction:
Semen quality—Preservation and Artificial Insemination—Components of semen, composition
of spermatozoa, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen
in vivo and in vitro. Factors affecting semen production and quality, preservation, composition
of diluents, sperm concentration, transport of diluted semen. Deep freezing techniques in cows,
sheep, goats, swine and poultry. Detection of oestrus and time of insemination for better
conception. Anoestrus and repeat breeding.
4. Livestock Production and Management:
4.1 Commercial Dairy Farming—Comparison of dairy farming in India with advanced countries.
Dairying under mixed farming and as specialized farming, economic dairy farming. Starting of
a dairy farm, capital and land requirement, organization of the dairy farm. Opportunities in
dairy farming, factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal. Herd recording, budgeting,
cost of milk production, pricing policy; Personnel Management. Developing Practical and
Economic rations for dairy cattle; supply of greens throughout the year, feed and fodder
requirements of Dairy Farm. Feeding regimes for young stock and bulls, heifers and breeding
animals; new trends in feeding young and adult stock; Feeding records.
4.2 Commercial meat, egg and wool production—Development of practical and economic rations
for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry. Supply of greens, fodder, feeding regimes for young
and mature stock. New trends in enhancing production and management. Capital and land
requirements and socio-economic concept.
4.3 Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural calamities.
5. Genetics and Animal Breeding:
History of animal genetics. Mitosis and Meiosis: Mendelian inheritance; deviations to
Mendelian genetics; Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing over; Sex determination, sex
influenced and sex limited characters; Blood groups and polymorphism; Chromosome
aberrations; Cytoplasmic inheritance. Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material;
Genetic code and protein synthesis; Recombinant DNA technology. Mutations, types of
mutations, methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate. Trans-genesis.
5.1 Population Genetics applied to Animal Breeding—Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits; Hardy
Weinberg Law; Population Vs. individual; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces changing
gene frequency; Random drift and small populations; Theory of path coefficient; Inbreeding,
methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding, effective population size;
Breeding value, estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation; Partitioning of
variation; Genotype X environment correlation and genotype X environment interaction; role of
multiple measurements; Resemblance between relatives.
5.2 Breeding Systems—Breeds of livestsock and Poultry. Heritability, repeatability and genetic and
phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates; Aids to
selection and their relative merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection;
Progeny testing; Methods of selection; Construction of selection indices and their uses;
Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods; Indirect selection
and correlated response; Inbreeding, out breeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of
breeds; Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production; Selection for general and specific
combining ability; Breeding for threshold characters. Sire index.
Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of extension. Different Methods adopted to
educate farmers under rural conditions. Generation of technology, its transfer and feedback.
Problems and constraints in transfer of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for rural
PAPER – II
1. Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene:
1.1 Histology and Histological Techniques: Paraffin embedding technique of tissue processing
and H.E. staining—Freezing microtomy— Microscopy—Bright field microscope and electron
microscope. Cytology—structure of cell, organells and inclusions; cell division—cell types—
Tissues and their classification—embryonic and adult tissues—Comparative histology of
organs—Vascular. Nervous, digestive, respiratory, musculo—skeletal and urogenital systems—
Endocrine glands —Integuments—sense organs.
1.2 Embryology—Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves and domestic mammals
gametogenesis—fertilization—germ layers—foetal membranes and placentation—types of
placenta in domestic mammals—Teratology—twins and twinning—organogenesis—germ layer
derivatives—endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal derivates.
1.3 Bovine Anatomy—Regional Anatomy: Paranasal sinuses of OX—surface anatomy of salivary
glands. Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary, mandibuloalveolar, mental and cornual
nerve block. Regional anatomy of paravertebral nerves, pudendal nerve, median ulnar and
radial nerves—tibial, fibular and digital nerves—Cranial nerves-structures involved in epidural
anaesthesia—superficial lymph nodes—surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic,
abdominal and pelvic cavities—comparative features of locomotor apparatus and their
application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.
1.4 Anatomy of Fowl—Musculo—skeletal system—functional anatomy in relation to respiration
and flying, digestion and egg production.
1.5 Pharmacology and therapeutic drugs—Cellular level of pharmacodynamics and
pharmacokinetics. Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance. Drugs acting on Autonomic
nervous system. Modern concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative anaesthetics. Autacolds.
Antimicrobials and principles of chemotherapy in microbial infections. Use of hormones in
therapeutics—chemotherapy of parasitic infections. Drug and economic concerns in the Edible
tissues of animals—chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases. Toxicity due to insecticides, plants,
metals, non-metals, zootoxins and mycotoxins.
1.6 Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation—Assessment of pollution of
water, air and soil—Importance of climate in animal health—effect of environment on animal
function and performance—relationship between industrialization and animal agriculture—
animal housing requirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows and
sows, milking cows, broiler birds—stress, strain and productivity in relation to animal
2. Animal Diseases:
2.1 Etiology, epidemiology pathogenesis, symptoms, postmortem lesions, diagnosis, and control of
infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat, horses, pigs and poultry.
2.2 Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of cattle, horse,
pig and poultry.
2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.
2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions like impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea,
Indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisoning.
2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.
2.6 Principles and methods of immunization of animals against specific diseases—herd immunity—
disease free zones—‘zero’ disease concept—chemoprophylaxis.
2.7 Anaesthesia—local, regional and general—preanesthetic medication. Symptoms and surgical
interference in fractures and dislocation. Hernia, choking abomasal displacement—Caesarian
2.8 Disease investigation techniques.—Materials for laboratory investigation—Establishment of
Animal Health Centers—Disease free zone.
3. Veterinary Public Health :
3.1 Zoonoses.—Classification, definition, role of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission
of zoonotic diseases—occupational zoonotic diseases.
3.2 Epidemiology—Principle, definition of epidemiological terms, application of epidemiological
measures in the study of diseases and disease control. Epidemiological features of air, water and
food borne infections. OIE regulations, WTO, sanitary and phytosanitary measures.
3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence—Rules and Regulations for improvement of animal quality and
prevention of animal diseases—State and central rules for prevention of animal and animal
product borne diseases—S P C A—Veterolegal cases—Certificates—Materials and Methods of
collection of samples for veterolegal investigation.
4. Milk and Milk Products Technology :
4.1 Market Milk: Quality, testing and grading of raw milk. Processing, packaging, storing,
distribution, marketing, defects and their control. Preparation of the following milks:
Pasteurized, standardized, toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted,
recombined and flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management,
yoghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured and sterilized milks. Legal
standards. Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant equipment.
4.2 Milk Products Technology.—Selection of raw materials, processing, storing, distributing and
marketing milk products such as Cream, Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese, condensed,
evaporated, dried milk and baby food, Ice cream and Kulfi; by-products, whey products, butter
milk, lactose and casein. Testing, grading, judging milk products—BIS and Agmark
specifications, legal standards, quality control and nutritive properties. Packaging, processing
and operational control. Costing of dairy products.