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10-05-2014, 11:16 AM
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Foreign collaborations and multinationals

Foreign collaborations and multinationals


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Multinational corporation

A multinational corporation (MNC) or multinational enterprise (MNE)[1] is a corporation that is registered in more than one country or that has operations in more than one country. It is a large corporation which both produces and sells goods or services in various countries.[2] It can also be referred to as an international corporation. They play an important role in globalization. Arguably, the first multinational business organization was the Knights Templar, founded in 1120.[3][4][5] After that came the British East India Company in 1600 [6][7] and then the Dutch East India Company, founded March 20, 1602, which would become the largest company in the world for nearly 200 years

About Multinational Companies

As the name suggests, any company is referred to as a multinational company or corporation (M. N. C.) when that company manages its operation or production or service delivery from more than a single country.
Such a company is even known as international company or corporation. As defined by I. L. O. or the International Labor Organization, a M. N. C. is one, which has its operational headquarters based in one country with several other operating branches in different other countries. The country where the head quarter is located is called the home country whereas, the other countries with operational branches are called the host countries. Apart from playing an important role in globalization and international relations, these multinational companies even have notable influence in a country's economy as well as the world economy. The budget of some of the M. N. C.s are so high that at times they even exceed the G. D. P. (Gross Domestic Product) of a nation.
These are not the sole prior causes of the Nokia, Vodafone, Fiat, Ford Motors and as the list moves on- to flourish in India. As the basic economic data suggest that after the liberalization in 1991, it has brought in hosts of foreign companies in India and the share of U.S shows the highest. They account about 37% of the turnover from top 20 companies that function in India.

Why are Multinational Companies in India?

There are a number of reasons why the multinational companies are coming down to India. India has got a huge market. It has also got one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Besides, the policy of the government towards FDI has also played a major role in attracting the multinational companies in India.
For quite a long time, India had a restrictive policy in terms of foreign direct investment. As a result, there was lesser number of companies that showed interest in investing in Indian market. However, the scenario changed during the financial liberalization of the country, especially after 1991. Government, nowadays, makes continuous efforts to attract foreign investments by relaxing many of its policies. As a result, a number of multinational companies have shown interest in Indian market.

Conflict of laws

Conflict of laws is a set of procedural rules that determines which legal system and which jurisdiction's applies to a given dispute.
The term conflict of laws itself originates from situations where the ultimate outcome of a legal dispute depended upon which law applied, and the common law courts manner of resolving the conflict between those laws. In civil law, lawyers and legal scholars refer to conflict of laws as private international law. Private international law has no real connection with public international law, and is instead a feature of local law which varies from country to country.
The three branches of conflict of laws are:
Jurisdiction – whether the forum court has the power to resolve the dispute at hand
Choice of law – the law which is being applied to resolve the dispute
Foreign judgments – the ability to recognize and enforce a judgment from an external forum within the jurisdiction of the adjudicating forum.

Globalization

Multinational corporations are important factors in the processes of globalization. National and local governments often compete against one another to attract MNC facilities, with the expectation of increased tax revenue, employment, and economic activity. To compete, political powers push towards greater autonomy for corporations, or both. MNCs play an important role in developing the economies of developing countries like investing in these countries provide market to the MNC but provide employment, choice of multi goods etc.
The number of MNCs have increased greatly from 7000 in 1970 to over 78,000 in 2006. What many people aren't aware of is that MNCs account for over half of the industrial output of the world. The names of some of the largest MNCs include Wal-mart, General Motors, Exxon-Mobil, Mitsubishi, and Siemens. However, according to data from 2005, only one of the 200 largest MNCs are based in a developing nation which happens to share a border with the United States, Mexico.

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