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29-05-2010, 08:48 PM
Post: #1
embedded systems ppt

.ppt  embedded systems ppt.ppt (Size: 425 KB / Downloads: 1327)

Embedded Systems
Theory and Design

Anupam Basu


2
Course overview

Tentative contents:
¢ Introduction to Embedded Computing
¢ Embedded System Hardware
¢ Embedded Computing Platform
¢ Programming Embedded Systems
¢ Embedded System Development
6. Case Study and Assignments for Designing a Complete System


3
Course Overview

¢ Evaluation criteria:
Term papers / Seminars/ Projects : 40% (20% will be clubbed with end term marks and 20% will contribute as Teacher's Assessment)
Mid Term (written): 20%
End Term (written): 40%


4
What is an Embedded System

An Embedded System is a microprocessor based system that is embedded as a subsystem, in a larger system (which may or may not be a computer system).

O
I


5
Application areas

¢ Automotive electronics
¢ Aircraft electronics
¢ Trains
¢ Telecommunication



6
Application areas

¢ Authentication

¢ Military applications

¢ Medical systems



7
Application areas

¢ Consumer electronics

¢ Smart buildings

¢ Fabrication equipment
\



8
Essential Components

¢ Microprocessor / DSP
¢ Sensors
¢ Converters (A-D and D-A)
¢ Actuators
¢ Memory (On-chip and Off chip)
¢ Communication path with the interacting environment




9
Embedded System Structure

(Generic)
Memory
Processor & ASICs
A-D
Sensor
D-A
Actuator




10
Essential Considerations

¢ Response Time -- Real Time Systems
¢ Area
¢ Cost
¢ Portability
¢ Low Power (Battery Life)

¢ Fault Tolerance
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢ 11
Design Issues
(Hardware-Software Co-design)

¢ System Specification
o Functions, Real Time Constraints, Cost and Power Constraints
¢ Hardware Software Partitioning
¢ Hardware Synthesis
¢ Software Synthesis and Code Generation
¢ Simulation
¢ Implementation
\




12
ES, MS and RTS

¢ All embedded systems are microprocessor based systems, but all microprocessor basedsystems may not be amenable to embedding (Area, Power, Cost, Payload parameters).
¢ Most of the embedded systems have real time constraints, but there may be ES which are not hard RTS (for example off line Palm tops)
¢ There may be RTS which are not embedded (e.g. Separate Process Control Computers in a network)
¢ Embedded Systems are not GPS; they are designed for dedicated applications with specific interfaces with the sphere of control




13
General Characteristics of Embedded Systems

¢ Perform a single task
o Usually not general purpose
¢ Increasingly high performance and real time constrained
¢ Power, cost and reliability are important considerations
¢ HW-SW systems
o Software is used for more features and flexibility
o Hardware (processors, ASICs, memory etc. are used for performance and security




14
General Characteristics of Embedded Systems (contd.)
ASIC s
Processor Cores





ASIPs and ASICs form a significant component

o Adv: customization lower power, cost and enhanced performance
o Disadv: higher development effort (debuggers, compilers etc.) and larger time to market

Mem
Analog IO
Digital



15
Classification of Embedded Systems

¢ Distributed and Non distributed

¢ Reactive and Transformational

¢ Control dominated and Data dominated



16
Application Specific Characteristics

¢ Application is known before the system is designed
¢ System is however made programmable for
o Feature upgrades
o Product differentiation
¢ Often application development occurs in parallel to system development
o Hw-Sw partitioning should be as delayed as possible
¢ For upgrades design reuse is an important criterion
o IP reuse, object oriented development



17
DSP Characteristics

¢ Signals are increasingly being represented digitally as a sequence of samples
¢ ADCs are moving closer to signals; RFs are also treated digitally
¢ Typical DSP processing includes:
o Filtering, DFT, DCT etc.
o Speech and image: Compression, decompression, encryption, decryption etc.
o Modems: Equalization, noise and echo cancellation, better SNR
o Communication channel: encoding, decoding, equalization etc.



18
Distributed Characteristics

¢ Components may be physically distributed
¢ Communicating processes on multiple processors
¢ Dedicated hw connected through communicating channels

¢ Often economical
o 4 x 8 Bit controllers may be cheaper than a 32 bit microcontroller
o Multiple processors can perform multiple time critical tasks
o Better logistics “ devices being controlled may be physically distributed



19
Design Metrics

¢ Unit cost “ the $ cost for each unit excluding development cost
¢ NRE cost: $ cost for design and development
¢ Size: The physical space reqd. “ determined by bytes of sw, number of gates and transistors in hw
¢ Performance: execution time or throughput of the system
¢ Power: lifetime of battery, cooling provisions
¢ Flexibility: ability to change functionality without heavy NRE cost



20
Design Metrics (contd.)

¢ Time to market = Time to prototype + Time to refine + Time to produce in bulk
¢ Correctness: Test and Validation
¢ Safety:

¢ Often these metrics are contradictory “ hence calls for optimization
¢ Processor choice, partitioning decisions, compilation knowledge
¢ Requires expertise in hw and sw both



21
Major Subtasks of Embedded System Design

¢ Modeling the system to be designed and constraints
o Experimenting with different algorithms and their preliminary evaluation
o Factoring the task into smaller subtasks and modeling their interaction
¢ Refinement
¢ HW-SW partitioning
o Allocating the tasks into hw, sw running on custom hw or general purpose hw
¢ Scheduling “ allocation of time steps for several modules sharing the same resource
¢ Implementation: Actual hw binding and sw code generation
¢ Simulation and Validation
¢ Iterate if necessary



22
What is Co-design

¢ Traditional design
o SW and HW partitioning done at an early stage and development henceforth proceeds independently
¢ CAD tools are focussed towards hardware synthesis
¢ For embedded systems we need several components
o DSPs, microprocessors, network and bus interface etc.
¢ HW-SW codesign allow hw and sw design to proceed in parallel with interactions and feedback between the two processes
¢ Evaluation of trade offs and performance yields ultimate result



23
CAD for Embedded Systems

¢ Co-design: Joint optimization of hw and sw to optimize design metrics
¢ Co-synthesis: Synthesizes designs from formal specifications
¢ Rapid prototyping and design space exploration
¢ Many of the tasks are interrelated
¢ Intermediate evaluation is not easy as a later decision in one path affects the other



24
A Mix of Disciplines

¢ Application Domain (Signal processing, control ¦)
¢ Software Engg. ( Design Process plays an important role)
¢ Programming Language
¢ Compilers and Operating System
¢ Architecture “ Processor and IO techniques
¢ Parallel and Distributed Computing
¢ Real Time Systems




Importance of Embedded Software

and Embedded Processors
... the New York Times has
estimated that the average
American comes into contact with about 60 micro-processors every day.... [Camposano, 1996]
Latest top-level BMWs
contain over 100 micro-
processors
[Personal communication]
Most of the functionality
of embedded systems
will be implemented in software!



26
¢ It is estimated that each year embedded software is written five times as much as 'regular' software
¢ The vast majority of CPU-chips produced world-wide today are used in the embedded market ... ; only a small portion of CPU's is applied in PC's
¢ ... the number of software-constructors of Embedded Systems will rise from 2 million in 1994 to 10 million in 2010;
... the number of constructors employed by software-producers 'merely' rises from 0.6 million to 1.1 million.

[Department of Trade and Industry/ IDC Benelux BV: Embedded software research in the Netherlands. Analysis and results, 1997
(according to: http://www.scintilla.utwente.nl/shintabi...ext.html)]
Views on embedded System



27
Some problems

¢ How can we capture the required behaviour of complex
systems
¢ How do we validate specifications
¢ How do we translate specifications efficiently into
implementation
¢ Do software engineers ever consider electrical power
¢ How can we check that we meet real-time constraints
¢ How do we validate embedded real-time software
(large volumes of data, testing may be safety-critical)

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30-05-2010, 09:35 PM
Post: #2
RE: embedded systems ppt
hey....

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
05-10-2010, 05:42 PM
Post: #3
RE: embedded systems ppt

.ppt  ch4.ppt (Size: 411 KB / Downloads: 273)
embeded system design

Introduction


Single-purpose processors
Performs specific computation task
Custom single-purpose processors
Designed by us for a unique task
Standard single-purpose processors
“Off-the-shelf” -- pre-designed for a common task
a.k.a., peripherals
serial transmission
analog/digital conversions
22-11-2010, 05:25 PM
Post: #4
RE: embedded systems ppt
i need embedded systems ppt pls heip me
22-11-2010, 06:13 PM
Post: #5
RE: embedded systems ppt
please download the attachment from the top post

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25-01-2011, 01:33 PM
Post: #6
RE: embedded systems ppt



.ppt  EMBEDDED.ppt (Size: 516 KB / Downloads: 163)

HARI BABU YADAV

UNDERGUIDNESS PROF. RAJENDRA SINGH KUSHWAH



Course overview

Tentative contents:
Introduction to Embedded Computing
Embedded System Hardware
Embedded Computing Platform  
Programming Embedded Systems  
Embedded System Development  
6. Case Study and Assignments for Designing a Complete System


Evaluation criteria:
Term papers / Seminars/ Projects : 40% (20% will be clubbed with end term marks and 20% will contribute as Teacher's Assessment)
Mid Term (written): 20%
End Term (written): 40%

What is an Embedded System

An Embedded System is a microprocessor based system that is embedded as a subsystem, in a larger system (which may or may not be a computer system).

Essential Components

Microprocessor / DSP
Sensors
Converters (A-D and D-A)
Actuators
Memory (On-chip and Off chip)
Communication path with the interacting environment

Essential Considerations

Response Time -- Real Time Systems
Area
Cost
Portability
Low Power (Battery Life)

Fault Tolerance

Design Issues (Hardware-Software Co-design)

System Specification
Functions, Real Time Constraints, Cost and Power Constraints
Hardware Software Partitioning
Hardware Synthesis
Software Synthesis and Code Generation
Simulation
Implementation

ES, MS and RTS

All embedded systems are microprocessor based systems, but all microprocessor based systems may not be amenable to embedding (Area, Power, Cost, Payload parameters).
Most of the embedded systems have real time constraints, but there may be ES which are not hard RTS (for example off line Palm tops)
There may be RTS which are not embedded (e.g. Separate Process Control Computers in a network)
Embedded Systems are not GPS; they are designed for dedicated applications with specific interfaces with the sphere of control


General Characteristics of Embedded Systems

Perform a single task
Usually not general purpose
Increasingly high performance and real time constrained
Power, cost and reliability are important considerations
HW-SW systems
Software is used for more features and flexibility
Hardware (processors, ASICs, memory etc. are used for performance and security

ASIPs and ASICs form a significant component
Adv: customization  lower power, cost and enhanced performance
Disadv: higher development effort (debuggers, compilers etc.) and larger time to market

Classification of Embedded Systems

Distributed and Non distributed

Reactive and Transformational

Control dominated and Data dominated

Application Specific Characteristics

Application is known before the system is designed
System is however made programmable for
Feature upgrades
Product differentiation
Often application development occurs in parallel to system development
Hw-Sw partitioning should be as delayed as possible
For upgrades design reuse is an important criterion
IP reuse, object oriented development

DSP Characteristics

Signals are increasingly being represented digitally as a sequence of samples
ADCs are moving closer to signals; RFs are also treated digitally
Typical DSP processing includes:
Filtering, DFT, DCT etc.
Speech and image: Compression, decompression, encryption, decryption etc.
Modems: Equalization, noise and echo cancellation, better SNR
Communication channel: encoding, decoding, equalization etc.

Distributed Characteristics

Components may be physically distributed
Communicating processes on multiple processors
Dedicated hw connected through communicating channels

Often economical
4 x 8 Bit controllers may be cheaper than a 32 bit microcontroller
Multiple processors can perform multiple time critical tasks
Better logistics – devices being controlled may be physically distributed

Design Metrics

Unit cost – the $ cost for each unit excluding development cost
NRE cost: $ cost for design and development
Size: The physical space reqd. – determined by bytes of sw, number of gates and transistors in hw
Performance: execution time or throughput of the system
Power: lifetime of battery, cooling provisions
Flexibility: ability to change functionality without heavy NRE cost


Time to market = Time to prototype + Time to refine + Time to produce in bulk
Correctness: Test and Validation
Safety:

Often these metrics are contradictory – hence calls for optimization
Processor choice, partitioning decisions, compilation knowledge
Requires expertise in hw and sw both

Major Subtasks of Embedded System Design

Modeling the system to be designed and constraints
Experimenting with different algorithms and their preliminary evaluation
Factoring the task into smaller subtasks and modeling their interaction
Refinement
HW-SW partitioning
Allocating the tasks into hw, sw running on custom hw or general purpose hw
Scheduling – allocation of time steps for several modules sharing the same resource
Implementation: Actual hw binding and sw code generation
Simulation and Validation
Iterate if necessary

What is Co-design?

Traditional design
SW and HW partitioning done at an early stage and development henceforth proceeds independently
CAD tools are focussed towards hardware synthesis
For embedded systems we need several components
DSPs, microprocessors, network and bus interface etc.
HW-SW codesign allow hw and sw design to proceed in parallel with interactions and feedback between the two processes
Evaluation of trade offs and performance yields ultimate result

CAD for Embedded Systems

Co-design: Joint optimization of hw and sw to optimize design metrics
Co-synthesis: Synthesizes designs from formal specifications
Rapid prototyping and design space exploration
Many of the tasks are interrelated
Intermediate evaluation is not easy as a later decision in one path affects the other

A Mix of Disciplines

Application Domain (Signal processing, control …)
Software Engg. ( Design Process plays an important role)
Programming Language
Compilers and Operating System
Architecture – Processor and IO techniques
Parallel and Distributed Computing
Real Time Systems

Importance of Embedded Software and Embedded Processors


“... the New York Times has
estimated that the average
American comes into contact with about 60 micro-processors every day....” [Camposano, 1996]

Latest top-level BMWs
contain over 100 micro-
processors
[Personal communication]

Views on embedded System

It is estimated that each year embedded software is written five times as much as 'regular' software
The vast majority of CPU-chips produced world-wide today are used in the embedded market ... ; only a small portion of CPU's is applied in PC's
... the number of software-constructors of Embedded Systems will rise from 2 million in 1994 to 10 million in 2010; ... the number of constructors employed by software-producers 'merely' rises from 0.6 million to 1.1 million.

Some problems

How can we capture the required behaviour of complex systems ?
How do we validate specifications?
How do we translate specifications efficiently into implementation?
Do software engineers ever consider electrical power?
How can we check that we meet real-time constraints?
How do we validate embedded real-time software? (large volumes of data, testing may be safety-critical)



21-02-2011, 12:27 PM
Post: #7
RE: embedded systems ppt

.doc  MAIN_PROJECT.DOC (Size: 1,002 KB / Downloads: 102)
METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

Embedded systems are self-contained programs that are embedded within a piece of hardware. Whereas a regular computer has many different applications and software that can be applied to various tasks, embedded systems are usually set to a specific task that cannot be altered without physically manipulating the circuitry. Another way to think of an embedded system is as a computer system that is created with optimal efficiency, thereby allowing it to complete specific functions as quickly as possible.
Embedded systems designers usually have a significant grasp of hardware technologies. They use specific programming languages and software to develop embedded systems and manipulate the equipment. When searching online, companies offer embedded systems development kits and other embedded systems tools for use by engineers and businesses.
Embedded systems technologies are usually fairly expensive due to the necessary development time and built in efficiencies, but they are also highly valued in specific industries. Smaller businesses may wish to hire a consultant to determine what sort of embedded systems will add value to their organization.
OPERATION OF CIRCUIT
In this application we are using GSM module to receive as well as to transmit the messages. Whenever we send the command to GSM module then it can do particular operation depending upon the command what we are placing in the application program. Whenever we send a command to GSM module it can send the messages as well as mobile number to controller through serial interface .The controller read the message from serial interface of GSM if it is valid message then controller can turn the motor or on the bulb as well as controller can display the mobile number on LCD. Microcontroller can send the result operation to GSM whether motor is ON\OFF or bulb is ON\OFF, then GSM module can send the message back to mobile.
In this project I used some commands those are follows.
AT+CMGD ....................................DELETE SMS MESSAGE

AT+CMGF .....................................SELECT SMS MESSAGE FORMAT

AT+CMGR .....................................READ SMS MESSAGE

AT+CMGS ......................................SEND SMS MESSAGE
1 …………………………….. TO ON THE MOTOR
2 ……………………………….TO OFF THE MOTOR
3 ……………………………….TO ON THE BULB
4 .……………………………….TO OFF THE BULB
22-02-2011, 04:09 PM
Post: #8
RE: embedded systems ppt
presented by:
Hala Siraj Y


.pptx  embedded systems( siraj hala).pptx (Size: 200.44 KB / Downloads: 90)
EMBEDED SYSTEMS
INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS EMBEDDED SYSTEM?
 An Embedded System is a microprocessor based system that is embedded as a subsystem, in a larger system. (which may or may not be a computer system).
 It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts.
 An embedded system is a computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions often with real-time computing constraints.
 The embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks.
CATEGORIES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
 REAL TIME EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
• Hard Real Time Systems
• Soft Real Time Systems
 NETWORKED APPLIANCES
 MOBILE DEVICES
HARDWARE FUNDAMENTALS
• Embedded Systems does not have
Key-board,Mouse, HDD,CD/DVD Drive,Monitor
• Embedded systems have
 A Few LEDs,LCD Display Screen,Push buttons
 Two separate memory for Data & Programme.
 Microprocessor / DSP
 Sensors
 Converters (A-D and D-A)
 Actuators
 Memory
Design Issues(Hardware-Software Co-design)
 System Specification
 Functions, Real Time Constraints, Cost and Power Constraints
 Hardware Software Partitioning
 Allocating the tasks into hardware, software running on custom hw or general purpose hardware
 Hardware Synthesis
 Software Synthesis and Code Generation
 Scheduling – allocation of time steps for several modules sharing the same resource
 Implementation
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
 Machine level Languages
 Not much Used
 Time Consuming
 Assembly level Languages
 Suitable for small scale applications
 High level languages
 ‘C’,’C++’,JAVA
 ‘C’ IS PREFERABLE.
 The C programming language is perhaps the most popular programming language for programming embedded systems.
Coding standards IN EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
 Common aims
 Reliability
 Portability
 Maintainability
 Testability
 Reusability
 Extensibility
 Readability
Connection With The Externel device
 Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS-232, RS-422, RS-485 etc.
 Synchronous Serial Communication Interface: I2C, SPI, SSC and ESSI (Enhanced Synchronous Serial Interface)
 Universal Serial Bus (USB)
 Multi Media Cards (SD Cards, Compact Flash etc.)
 Networks: Ethernet, Controller Area Network, Lon Works, etc.
 Timers: PLL(s), Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units
 Discrete IO: aka General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO)
 Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog (ADC/DAC)
Applications of Embedded Systems
 Automotive electronics
 Aircraft electronics
 Trains
 Telecommunication
 Medical systems
 Military Appliences
MORE USES
 Assembly line quality monitors
 Bar code readers
 Bread machines
 Cameras
 Car assembly robots
 Cell phones
 Centrifuge controllers
 CD players
 Disk drive controllers
 “Smart card” processors
 Fuel injector controls
 Medical equipment monitors
 PDAs
 Printer controllers
 Sound systems
 Rice cookers
 Telephone switches
 Water pump controllers
 Welding machines
 Windmills
• Wrist watches
26-02-2011, 03:20 PM
Post: #9
RE: embedded systems ppt
presented by:
ARPITHA.R


.ppt  Copy (2) of EMBEDDEDSYSTEMS.ppt (Size: 1.99 MB / Downloads: 96)
EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEM

An embedded system can be defined as the computing device that has computer hardware with software embedded in it as one of its most important component. It may be either an independent system or a part of a larger system.
Characteristics
• Application specific
- Optimize for cost, area, power, and performance
• Digital signal processing
- Signals are represented digitally
• Reactive
- Reacts to changes in the system’s environment
• Real-time
- Compute certain tasks before deadline
• Distributed ,networked
• Reliability
- Probability of system working correctly at fixed time
• Maintainability
- Probability of system working correctly fixed time units after error
occurred
• Safety
- Not harmful for user
• Security
- Confidential and authentic communication ibuted, networked,…
CATAGORIES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM
 Stand-alone Embedded Systems:-
 As the name implies, stand-alone systems work in stand-alone mode.
 They take inputs, process them & produce the desired output.
 The input can be electrical signal from transducers or commands from a human being such as pressing of a button.
 The output can be electrical signals to drive another system, an LED or LCD display for displaying of information of the user.
Real-time Systems:-
 Embedded Systems in which some specific work has to be done in specific time period are called real-time systems.
Types of real-time systems
 Hard real-time systems
 Soft real time systems
Network Information Appliances:-
o Embedded systems that are provided with network interfaces & accessed by networks such as LAN or the Internet are called networked information appliances.
o Such embedded systems are connected to a network, typically a network running TCP/IP protocol suite, such as the Internet or the Company’s Intranet.
o These systems have emerged in recent years
20-06-2011, 12:24 PM
Post: #10
RE: embedded systems ppt

.doc  21-EMBEDDED SYSTEMS1.doc (Size: 687 KB / Downloads: 66)
ABSTRACT
“Embedded systems have virtually entered every sphere of our lives”
Embedded systems encompass a variety of hardware and software components, which perform specific functions in host systems, for example, satellites, washing machines, hand-held telephones and automobiles. Embedded systems have become increasingly digital with a non-digital periphery (analog power) and therefore, both hardware and software co-design are relevant. The vast majority of computers manufactured are used in such systems. They are called `embedded' to distinguish them from standard mainframes, workstations, and PCs. Although the design of embedded systems has been used in industrial practice for decades, the systematic design of such systems has only recently gained increased attention. Advances in microelectronics have made possible applications that would have been impossible without an embedded system design.
Embedded System Applications describes the latest techniques for embedded system design in a variety of applications. This also includes some of the latest software tools for embedded system design. Embedded System Applications will be of great interest to researchers and designers working in the design of embedded systems for industrial applications.
Embedded systems have virtually entered every sphere of our lives, right from the time we work out on trade mills in the gym, to the cars we drive today. Embedded systems cover a broad range of products that generalization is difficult.
INTRODUCTION:
Breathtaking developments in microelectronics, processor speeds, and memory elements, accompanied with dropping prices, have resulted in powerful embedded systems with a number of applications.
An embedded system is a microprocessor –based system that is incorporated into a device to monitor and control the functions of the components of the device. They are used in many devices ranging from a microwave oven to a nuclear reactor. Unlike personal computers that run a variety of applications, embedded systems are designed for performing specific tasks. An embedded system used in a device (for instance the embedded system in washing machine that is used to cycle through the various states of the washing machine) is programmed by the designers of the system and generally cannot be programmed by the end user.
Definition :
An embedded system is various type of computer system or computing device that performs a dedicated function and/or is designed for use with a specific embedded software application.
Embedded systems posses the following distinguishing qualities.
Reliability:
Embedded system should be very reliable as they perform critical functions. For instance, consider the embedded system used for flight control. Failure of the embedded system could have disastrous consequences. Hence embedded system programmers should take into consideration all possibilities and write programs that do not fail.
Responsiveness:
Embedded systems should respond to events as soon as possible. For example, a patient monitoring system should process the patient’s heart signals quickly and immediately notify if any abnormality in the signals is detected.
Specialized hardware:
Since embedded systems are used for performing specific functions, specialized hardware is used. For example, embedded systems that monitor and analyze audio signals use signal processors.
Low cost:
As embedded systems are extensively used in consumer electronic systems, they are cost sensitive. Thus their cost must be low.
Robustness:
Embedded systems should be robust since they operate in a harsh environment. They should endure vibrations, power supply fluctuations and excessive heat.
EMBEDDED SYSTEM AND REAL TIME SYSTEM:
Embedded systems are confused with real-time systems. A real time system is one in which the correctness of the computations not only depends on the accuracy of the result, but also on the time when the result is produced. Figure 1 shows the relationship between embedded and real time systems.
Fig: Embedded And real-time systems
COMPONENTS OF AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM:
Embedded systems have the following components.
PROCESSOR:
A processor fetches instructions from the memory unit and executes the instructions. An instruction consists of an instruction code and the operands on which the instruction should act upon. The format of instruction code and operands of a processor is defined by the processor’s instruction set. Each type of processor has its own instruction set. Performance of the system can be improved by dedicated processors, which implement algorithms in hardware using building blocks such as hardware counters and multipliers.
Some embedded processors have special fuzzy logic instructions. This is because inputs to an embedded system are sometimes better represented as fuzzy variables. For instance, the mathematical model for a control system may not exist or may involve expensive computing power. Fuzzy logic can be employed for such control systems to provide a cost-effective solution.
MEMORY:
The memory unit in an embedded system should have low access time and high density. (A memory chip- has greater density if it can store more bits in the same amount of space. Memory in an embedded system consists of ROM and RAM .The contents of ROM are non-volatile while RAM is volatile. ROM stores the program code while RAM is used to store transient input or output data. Embedded systems generally do not possess secondary storage devices such as magnetic disks. As programs of embedded systems are small there is no need of virtual storage.
05-01-2012, 11:16 AM
Post: #11
RE: embedded systems ppt

.pdf  01. Introduction to Embedded Systems.pdf (Size: 204.44 KB / Downloads: 120)

Microcontrollers
A Microcontroller is essentially a small and selfsufficient
computer on a chip, used to control devices
It has all the memory and I/O it needs on board
Is not expandable – no external bus interface
Characteristics of a Microcontroller
• Low cost, on the order of $1
• Low speed, on the order of 10 KHz – 20 MHz
• Low Power, extremely low power in sleep mode
• Small architecture, usually an 8-bit architecture
• Small memory size, but usually enough for the type of
application it is intended for. Onboard Flash.
• Limited I/O, but again, enough for the type of application
intended for


Microprocessors

A Microprocessor is fundamentally a collection of
on/off switches laid out over silicon in order to perform
computations
Characteristics of a Microprocessor
• High cost, anywhere between $20 - $200 or more!
• High speed, on the order of 100 MHz – 4 GHz
• High Power consumption, lots of heat
• Large architecture, 32-bit, and recently 64-bit architecture
• Large memory size, onboard flash and cache, with an
external bus interface for greater memory usage
• Lots of I/O and peripherals, though Microprocessors tend
to be short on General purpose I/O



Harvard Architecture

Harvard Architecture refers to a memory structure
where the processor is connected to two different
memory banks via two sets of buses
This is to provide the processor with two distinct data
paths, one for instruction and one for data
Through this scheme, the CPU can read both an
instruction and data from the respective memory
banks at the same time
This inherent independence increases the throughput
of the machine by enabling it to always prefetch the
next instruction
The cost of such a system is complexity in hardware
Commonly used in DSPs





Von-Neumann Machine

A Von-Neumann Machine, in contrast to the Harvard
Architecture provides one data path (bus) for both
instruction and data
As a result, the CPU can either be fetching an
instruction from memory, or read/writing data to it
Other than less complexity of hardware, it allows for
using a single, sequential memory.
Today’s processing speeds vastly outpace memory
access times, and we employ a very fast but small
amount of memory (cache) local to the processor
Modern processors employ a Harvard Architecture to
read from two instruction and data caches, when at the
same time using a Von-Neumann Architecture to access
external memory
05-01-2012, 11:23 AM
Post: #12
RE: embedded systems ppt
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15-01-2012, 12:10 AM
Post: #13
RE: embedded systems ppt
ec2 technology ppt and other information
16-01-2012, 10:52 AM
Post: #14
RE: embedded systems ppt
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07-11-2012, 05:35 PM
Post: #15
RE: embedded systems ppt
embedded systems




.ppt  Embedded_System.ppt (Size: 393 KB / Downloads: 23)

Embedded System


Hardware is driven and controlled by software

Software runs in a computer system (usually a micro-controller)

Preprogrammed to do specific function
Let us look into some examples……



Applications


Communications
Automotive automatic braking
Military applications – Missile guidance systems
Industrial applications
Robotics


Computer design requirement


Real time/reactive operation
Small size, low weight
Safe and reliable
Harsh environment
Cost sensitivity



Future Possibilities


More and more produced processors are used in embedded devices
New applications like pervasive computing are emerging
Rating embedded systems ppt Options
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