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05-11-2016, 10:03 AM
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Data Storage On Fingernail


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INTRODUCTION
Recently, there have been rapid developments in the field of information
technology, resulting in the need to generate, store, and transport a large
amount of information while ensuring data security, an important issue in
today's digital age. To meet future demands in information technology,
femtosecond laser pulse processing offers a powerful tool for developing
new high-capacity devices because it allows fabrication of three-dimensional
(3-D) structures inside a wide range of transparent materials. In particular,
multilayered 3-D optical bit recording is a promising technique for nextgeneration
computing systems because it offers a large recording capacity by
stacking many recording layers without increasing the recording density per
layer . Our goal is to realize optical data storage in a human fingernail for
highly secure data transportation that does not suffer from problems such as
theft, forgery, or loss of recording media .
Japanese researchers are using femtosecond laser pulses to write data into
human fingernails .Secure optical data storage could soon literally be at your
fingertips thanks to work being carried out in Japan. Yoshio Hayasaki and
his colleagues have discovered that data can be written into a human
fingernail by irradiating it with femtosecond laser pulses. Capacities are said
to be up to 5 mega bits and the stored data lasts for 6 months - the length of
time it takes a fingernail to be completely replaced. (Optics Express 13
4560)
Fingernail storage "I don't like carrying around a large number of cards,
money and papers," Hayasaki from Tokushima University told Optics.org. "I
think that a key application will be personal authentication. Data stored in a
fingernail can be used with biometrics, such as fingerprint authentication and
intravenous authentication of the finger.



BASIC APPROCH
The team's approach is simple: use a femtosecond laser system to write the
data into the nail and a fluorescence microscope to read it out. The key to
reading the data out is that the nail's fluorescence increases at the point
irradiated by the femtosecond pulses. Initial experiments were carried out on
a small piece of human fingernail measuring 2 x 2 x 0.4 mm3. The writing
system comprises a Ti:Sapphire oscillator and Ti:Sapphire amplifier. Pulses
of less than 100 fs at 800 nm are then passed through a microscope and
focused to three set depths (40, 60 and 80 microns) using an objective lens.
Each "bit" of information has a diameter of 3.1 microns and is written by a
single femtosecond pulse. A motorised stage moves the nail to create a bit
spacing of 5 microns across the nail and a depth of 20 microns between
recording layers.
An optical microscope containing a filtered xenon arc lamp excites the
fluorescence and reads out the data stored at the various depths. "We
regulate the focus with the movement of the microscope objective,"
explained Hayasaki. "The distance between the planes is set to prevent
cross-talk between data stored at different depths. "Hayasaki adds that the
same fluorescence signal is seen 172 days after recording.
Although the initial experiments have concentrated on small pieces of nail,
the team is now developing a system that can write data to a fingernail
which is still attached to a finger. "We will develop a femtosecond laser
processing system that can record the data at the desired points with
compensation for the movement of a finger," said Hayasaki.


DATA IS LITERALY ON FINGER NAIL
As technology and science develop, new, more advanced means of storing
data are discovered. However, up until know, nobody thought of using the
human body as a storage media .
According to Jacqueline Hewett for physicsweb.org, Yoshio Hayasaki of
Tokushima University and colleagues have discovered that data can be
written into a human fingernail by irradiating it with femtosecond laser
pulses. Capacities are said to be up to 5 mega bits and the stored data lasts
or 6 months, which is the length of time it takes a fingernail to be completely
replaced.
"I don't like carrying around a large number of cards, money and papers,"
says Hayasaki. "I think that a key application will be personal
authentication. Data stored in a fingernail can be used with biometrics, such
as fingerprint authentication and intravenous authentication of the finger."
The team's approach is simple: use a femtosecond (10-15 seconds) laser
system to write the data into the nail and a fluorescence microscope to read
it out. The key to reading the data out is that the nail's fluorescence increases
at the point irradiated by the femtosecond pulses. Initial experiments were
carried out on a small piece of human fingernail measuring 2 x 2 x 0.4 cubic
millimetres. The writing system comprises a Ti:Sapphire oscillator and
Ti:Sapphire amplifier. Pulses of less than 100 femtoseconds at 800
nanometres are then passed through a microscope and focused to three set
depths (40, 60 and 80 microns) using an objective lens.
Each "bit" of information has a diameter of 3.1 microns and is written by a
single femtosecond pulse. A motorised stage moves the nail to create a bit
spacing of 5 microns across the nail and a depth of 20 microns between
recording layers.


An optical microscope containing a filtered xenon arc lamp excites the
fluorescence and reads out the data stored at the various depths. "We
regulate the focus with the movement of the microscope objective," explains
Hayasaki. "The distance between the planes is set to prevent cross-talk
between data stored at different depths." The same fluorescence signal is
seen 172 days after recording.
Although the initial experiments have concentrated on small pieces of nail,
the team is now developing a system that can write data to a fingernail
which is still attached to a finger. "We will develop a femtosecond laser
processing system that can record the data at the desired points with
compensation for the movement of a finger," adds Hayasaki.


DNA STORAGE VS FINGERNAIL
STORAGE
Storing messages in DNA it might be interesting to explore ways to encode
large volumes of data directly into parts of the human body. Storing data in
DNA has the advantage that data is distributed throughout the entire body.
Furthermore, if stored in the sex-cells, stored data can be passed down to
offspring. A disadvantage of using DNA for data-storage is the possible
unanticipated effects on cell development and health. Messing with DNA is
risky -- it may be safer to store data in other parts of the human body (with
the one potential disadvantage that such data would not be passed down via
heredity).Storing data on fingernails is a safe process. Using this technology
we save our data without having its bad effect on body.thus it is a safer
process as compared to DNA STORAGE. Here are some suggestions for
parts of the human body that might be good media for data-storage:
Fingernails
It may be possible to encode data on fingernails. This could be accomplished
via micro-etching onto the surface or better yet, via holographic etching
within the matrix of the fingernail itself. An advantage of using fingernails
to store data is that you could easily read the data by inserting a finger into a
scanning device. Also, different fingernails could be used for different data
partitiions. One disadvantage is that fingernails grow and eventually data
would be lost if not refreshed -- however this might actually be a feature in
that the storage is self-expiring which could be useful when you want data to
be permanently removed from storage.


OTHER PARTS OF HUMAN BODY IN
WHICH DATA CAN BE STORED
The lens of the eye.
The lens of the human eye may provide a good medium for encoding data.
Data would be written into it using laser holographic etching. An advantage
of this approach is that biometric authentication of user-access to data could
be integrated with the data itself. For example, to access the data that is
encoded onto the lens of your eye, you would look into a reader that would
first do an iris scan to authenticate your identity and permission to read the
data, and would then read/write the data as you request. A disadvantage of
using the lens to store data is that it might not be reusable -- it may be
difficult to erase or overwrite data on the lens, although the jury is still out
on this question. Another important consideration would be to ensure that
the data encoding did not interfere with vision, although it is not expected
that this would be a problem as it is easy to encode data microscopically
such that it would not affect visual refraction.
Teeth.
Data could potentiallyl be encoded into teeth, although it would be difficult
to write and read it off later. Furthermore, food and fluids in the mouth could
potentially interfere with read/write operations. This is probably a nonoptimal
storage solution!
Hair
Strands of human hair would be good media for storing data. Data could be
etched into the hair strand using a laser. The advantage of this is that the
body has lots of hair and it is constantly being regenerated, so there would
be an infinite supply of storage and rather than worrying about how to erase
or overwrite, you could simply use a different strand of hair to encode new
data. The disadvantage is that hairs are easily lost, which could make data
stored on hairs a bit fragile. Another problem is that it might be difficult to locate the data once stored -- since presumably a given person has more than
just a single hair on their body, which would require some method of
locating the particular hair containing the particular data of interest. One
solution might be to redundantly encode the same data on all the hair in a
given region, say the forearm of a person, such that any hair from that region
would contain a complete copy of the data.
HOW DATA IS STORED ON
FINGERNAILS
There is an increase in fluorescence intensity compared with the
surrounding auto-fluorescence intensity at a structural change produced by a
focused femtosecond laser pulse inside a human fingernail. The spectrum of
the increased fluorescence coincides with the auto-fluorescence spectrum of
a fingernail and that of pure keratin. The increased fluorescence intensity is
also observed in a heated fingernail. It is suggested that the increased
fluorescence is a result of a local denaturation of keratin protein caused by
the femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. The increased fluorescence effect is
very useful for reading out the bit data recorded inside a human fingernail.
We also demonstrate that three-dimensionally-arranged structural changes
can be read out with little cross-talk by making use of the increased
fluorescence. Furthermore, we demonstrate that fluorescence can be
observed for up to 6 months, corresponding to the time required for a
fingernail to grow from root to tip.


APPARATUS USED
An optical system for recording bit data inside a human
fingernail is composed of :
1. femtosecond laser system
2. an optical microscope.
The femtosecond laser system is composed of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire
laser pumped by a diode-pumped solid state continuous-wave green laser
and a multi-kilohertz pulsed Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier pumped by a
diode-pumped Nd-YLF laser . A femtosecond laser pulse with a central
wavelength of 800 nm and a pulse width of less than 100 fs (FWHM) is
introduced into the optical microscope.
The optical microscope system has a computer-controlled three-axis
motorized stage. In most experiments, a 40 objective (numerical aperture
(NA) = 0.55) is used.
(A) A sample on the motorized microscope stage is observed with a charge
coupled device (CCD) image sensor under transmitted illumination.
(B) The recording depth Z is defined as the distance moved along the optical
axis by the microscope stage.
© The zero depth is determined by microscope observation of the sample
surface.
(D) When the focusing position is inside the sample, Z is positive.
(E) The irradiation pulse energy Ep described is the product of the energy
easured at the entrance of the microscope and the transmittance of the
microscope system, including transmittance of the objective.
(F) The transmittance of the microscope is 0.49.
(G) The sample is a small piece of human fingernail whose size is about 22
0.4 mm3, and its surface is polished with abrasive lapping films .
(H) The surface polish reduces the required pulse energy for processing
because the scattering and the distortion of the wavefront are decreased. .


The optical setup for reading out the bit data
fluorescence microscope consisting of a
(A) xenon arc lamp as an exciting light source,
(B) filter blocks.Each of the filter blocks consists of an excitation filter
which is a band-pass filter ,a dichroic mirror (DM), which is a high-pass
filter , and a barrier filter (BA), which is a high-pass filter .
The spatial distribution of the fluorescence and the spectrum of a small area
of the fingernail are observed with a CCD image sensor and a spectrometer


DATA STORING ON NAILS
When the femtosecond laser pulse is focused inside a material, molecules
are subjected to multi-photon ionization and optical field ionization at a local
volume where the laser pulse is focused. Consequently, the ionized
molecules repulse each other, and a microexplosion occurs, which causes a
structural change in the material. Figure 2 shows transmission-illumination
microscope observations of three bit arrays recorded inside a human
fingernail. By changing the value of Ep data at various layers are stored.
The laser ionizes the photon and these photon carry data.
FIGURE BELOW SHOW THE DATA STORAGE AT DIFFERENT
LEVELS.


DATA READING FROM NAILS
It has been observed that there is an increased fluorescence at the structural
changes formed in the fingernail compared with the auto-fluorescence of the
fingernail. This change occur due to ionization of molecules .
Comparing these changes data can be retrieved. Image taken by
microscope is compared with the earlier fluorescence and accordingly a
graph is plotted. This graph is further analyse to obtain the data in the form
of bits.


Conclusion
We have demonstrated an increased fluorescence intensity at the structural
change inside a human fingernail produced by a focused femtosecond laser
pulse. The fluorescence intensity was higher than the surrounding autofluorescence
intensity of the fingernail. The structural changes, whose
geometrical shape drastically depends on the irradiated pulse energy, are
observed as a dark region by using a microscope with transmission
illumination. The increased fluorescence intensity was observed in the dark
region. The spectrum of the increased fluorescence coincided with the autofluorescence
spectra of the fingernail. The increased fluorescence intensity
was also observed in a fingernail heated in a drying oven. It is suggested that
the increased fluorescence of the structure is a result of a local denaturation
the keratin protein caused by heat generated by the femtosecond laser pulse
irradiation.
We demonstrated that the increased fluorescence of the structure is useful
for reading out three-dimensionally recorded data inside a human fingernail.
We recorded three bit planes inside a human fingernail. We demonstrated
that three bit planes can be read out with little cross-talk by using
fluorescence readout. Furthermore, we demonstrated that fluorescence can
be observed for up to 6 months, corresponding to the time required for a nail
to grow from root to tip. Under these recording conditions, a recording
density of 2 Gbit/cm3 is achievable.
When the recording performed on an accessible volume of 5 × 5 × 0.1 mm3,
the recording capacity of the data is 5 mega bits.
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