Cryogenic FULL REPORT
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Method to produce Low temperature
Magnetism produces low temperature. When a material is magnetized it becomes warm and cold when demagnetized in controlled atmosphere thus producing low temperature
By compressing the gas it producing heat and later allowed to expand producing ultralow temperature.
Advantages of Cryogenics Processing
The following properties are attained to the materials treated
Increases wear resistance
Increases corrosion resistance
Cost reduction in the material manufactured
Lower stress corrosion
. Cryogenic heat treatment helps to reduce the stored stress in the metal by creating a uniform bond between the crystals.
. This process is eco friendly in nature.
. There is no waste deposition.
. The nitrogen which used in the process is liquefied from the atmosphere and later released back into it thereby creating no imbalance to the ecosystem.
Cryogenic Rocket Engines
Cryogenic rocket engines are one of the important applications in the field of cryogenics.
The higher thrust levels required for a rocket engines are achieved when liquid oxygen and liquid hydrocarbon are used in fuel. But at atmospheric condition ,and low molecular hydrocarbons are in gaseous state. Therefore these are stored in liquid form by cooling them down using cryogenics. Hence the name cryogenic Rocket Engine.
cryogenic rocket Engine
Cryogenic Heat Treatment
This is a process of treating metals, plastics, ceramics temperatures below 120k to their crystal structure and properties.
This increases their wear resistance, and the life of metals and plastics.
They are used in the field of superconductors,cryo microbiology and space programs.
In alloy Steels
In this process the alloy steels are treated to convert the entire austenite into a marten site matrix such it changes the molecular structure of the steel and forms an entirely new, more refined grain structure .
The number of countable carbides increases from 30,000 to 80,000 per square millimeter which forms a “super hard” surface of metal.
Another use of cryogenics is cryogenic fuel . Cryogenic fuels, mainly liquid hydrogen , have been used as rocket fuels.
Cryogenics has made possible the commercial transportation of liquefied natural gas.
Without cryogenics , nuclear research would lack , liquid nitrogen and helium for in particle detector and the power electromagnets needed in large particle accelerators.
Such magnets are also being used in nuclear fusion research.
Cryogenic cooling is often used in space telescope that observe object in infrared and microwave wavelengths.
More efficient and compact cry coolers allow cryogenic temperatures to be used in an increasing variety of military , medical, scientific, civilian and commercial application , including infrared sensors, superconducting electronics, and magnetic levitation trains.
Cryogenics in Biology
Cryogenics is used in artificial insemination to store semen's and embryos.
One such use in bio field is cryosurgery,
cryosurgery sometimes is referred to cryotherapy . It is a surgical technique in which freezing is used to destroy undesirable tissues.
Cryogenics in food
Frozen food is food preserved by the process of freezing. Freezing food is a common method of food preservation which slows both food decay and, by turning water to ice, makes it unavailable for bacterial growth and slows down most chemical reactions…..
Frozen food preserves food from the time it is prepared to the time it is eaten . In the food commodity industry, the process is called IQF or Individually Quick Frozen.
Future of Cryogenics
Cryogenics Rocket engine which will be used by NASA for its moon mission.
Cryogen Handling Hazards
Direct contact with cryogenic liquids and gases as
well as surfaces at cryogenic temperatures can lead to
massive damages of the skin ( cold burns)
or even of tissues.
The danger of cold burns is most prominent when
handling open cryogen containers .
Eyes and sensitive membranes are most at risk.
Cold BurnsMeans of protection and preventive measures
- Safety garments which prevent the penetration of cryogenic liquids:
- eye protection
- gloves of insulating and non combustible material
which can be easily be removed
-high, tight fitting shoes
- trousers without turn-ups which
overlap the shoes
From this presentation it can be concluded that cryogenics can be applied to almost everywhere in every field .
It finds its application in tooling industries, agricultural industries, medical, recycling, household, automobile industries.
This field could be put to many other applications in various fields. Hence cryogenics proves to be promising for the future.