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04-01-2010, 02:11 PM
Post: #1
cloud computing Project Idea
hai ...

i am doing final MCA, i need the project titles on cloud computing...... pls convey

me.....
21-03-2010, 10:50 AM
Post: #2
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
please read http://www.seminarprojectsThread-cloud-computing--7992 for more about cloud computing technical details

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
12-10-2010, 10:17 AM
Post: #3
RE: cloud computing Project Idea

.pdf  Cloud Computing.pdf (Size: 439.93 KB / Downloads: 2097)
CLOUD COMPUTING

Presented By
TOM MATHEWS
RAJIV GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,
GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE,
KOTTAYAM


ABSTRACT
Computers have become an indispensable part of life. We need computers everywhere, be it for work, research or in any such field. As the use of computers in our day-to-day life increases, the computing resources that we need also go up. For companies like Google and Microsoft, harnessing the resources as and when they need it is not a problem. But when it comes to smaller enterprises, affordability becomes a huge factor. With the huge infrastructure come problems like machines failure, hard drive crashes, software bugs, etc. This might be a big headache for such a community. Cloud Computing offers a solution to this situation. Cloud computing is a paradigm shift in which computing is moved away from personal computers and even the individual enterprise application server to a ‘cloud’ of computers. A cloud is a virtualized server pool which can provide the different computing resources of their clients. Users of this system need only be concerned with the computing service being asked for. The underlying details of how it is achieved are hidden from the user. The data and the services provided reside in massively scalable data centers and can be ubiquitously accessed from any connected device all over the world. Cloud computing is the style of computing where massively scaled IT related capabilities are provided as a service across the internet to multiple external customers and are billed by consumption. Many cloud computing providers have popped up and there is a considerable growth in the usage of this service. Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, IBM and Amazon have started providing cloud computing services. Amazon is the pioneer in this field. Smaller companies like SmugMug, which is an online photo hosting site, has used cloud services for the storing all the data and doing some of its services. Cloud Computing is finding use in various areas like web hosting, parallel batch processing, graphics rendering, financial modeling, web crawling, genomics analysis, etc
20-10-2010, 12:10 PM
Post: #4
RE: cloud computing Project Idea

SUBMITTED BY
Usman Sait A.K.


.doc  cloudcomputingdocumentationreport.doc (Size: 518 KB / Downloads: 736)


Introduction

Imagine yourself in the world where the users of the computer of today’s internet world don’t have to run, install or store their application or data on their own computers, imagine the world where every piece of your information or data would reside on the Cloud (Internet).
As a metaphor for the Internet, "the cloud" is a familiar cliché, but when combined with "computing", the meaning gets bigger and fuzzier. Some analysts and vendors define cloud computing narrowly as an updated version of utility computing: basically virtual servers available over the Internet. Others go very broad, arguing anything you consume outside the firewall is "in the cloud", including conventional outsourcing.
Cloud computing comes into focus only when you think about what we always need: a way to increase capacity or add capabilities on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel, or licensing new software. Cloud computing encompasses any subscription-based or pay-per-use service that, in real time over the Internet, extends ICT's existing capabilities.
Cloud computing is at an early stage, with a motley crew of providers large and small delivering a slew of cloud-based services, from full-blown applications to storage services to spam filtering. Yes, utility-style infrastructure providers are part of the mix, but so are SaaS (software as a service) providers such as Salesforce.com. Today, for the most part, IT must plug into cloud-based services individually, but cloud computing aggregators and integrators are already emerging.

Cloud computing- The Concept
Cloud computing is Internet ("cloud") based development and use of computer technology ("computing"). It is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.
The concept incorporates infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and software as a service (SaaS) as well as Web 2.0 and other recent technology trends which have the common theme of reliance on the Internet for satisfying the computing needs of the users. Examples of SaaS vendors include Salesforce.com and Google Apps which provide common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the servers.
The term cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on how the Internet is depicted in computer network diagrams, and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals.
26-10-2010, 05:29 PM
Post: #5
RE: cloud computing Project Idea

.ppt  Overview of Fault tolerance in cloud computing.ppt (Size: 115.5 KB / Downloads: 830)

An Overview of ABFT in cloud computing

Shiv Kumar Gupta
Department of Computer Science A.P.S.U., Rewa
M.Phil.(2009-10)


What is cloud computing?

Cloud computing gets as a metaphor for the internet.
The internet is represented in network diagram as a cloud.
A cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system.
It is a collection of inter-connected and virtualized computers

Meaning of dependability


Dependability is the concept of reliability ,safety or security.
It is tool of attributes, means, impairments
Attributes have availability, reliability, safety, confidentiality, integrity, and Maintainability.
Means have fault prevention, fault tolerance, fault removal, fault forecasting
Impairments have faults, errors, failures








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01-03-2011, 03:24 PM
Post: #6
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
Cloud computing is location-independent computing, whereby shared servers provide resources, software, and data to computers and other devices on demand, as with the electricity grid. Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualization, service-oriented architecture and utility computing. Details are abstracted from consumers, who no longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.[1]
Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on the Internet, and it typically involves over-the-Internet provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources.[2][3] It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet.[4] This frequently takes the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if it were a program installed locally on their own computer.[5]
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides a somewhat more objective and specific definition here.[6] The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network,[7] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents.[8] Typical cloud computing providers deliver common business applications online that are accessed from another Web service or software like a Web browser, while the software and data are stored on servers.
Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through common centers and built on servers. Clouds often appear as single points of access for consumers' computing needs. Commercial offerings are generally expected to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements of customers, and typically include service level agreements (SLAs).[9]
Overview
Comparisons

Cloud computing derives characteristics from, but should not be confused with:
1. Autonomic computing — "computer systems capable of self-management"[10]
2. Client–server model – client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients)[11]
3. Grid computing — "a form of distributed computing and parallel computing, whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks"
4. Mainframe computer — powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data-processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing.[12]
5. Utility computing — the "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity";[13]
6. Peer-to-peer – distributed architecture without the need for central coordination, with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model)
7. Service-oriented computing – Cloud computing provides services related to computing while, in a reciprocal manner, service-oriented computing consists of the computing techniques that operate on software-as-a-service.[14]
Characteristics
The fundamental concept of cloud computing is that the computing is "in the cloud" i.e. the processing (and the related data) is not in a specified, known or static place(s). This is in opposition to where the processing takes place in one or more specific servers that are known. All the other concepts mentioned are supplementary or complementary to this concept.
Generally, cloud computing customers do not own the physical infrastructure, instead avoiding capital expenditure by renting usage from a third-party provider. They consume resources as a service and pay only for resources that they use. Many cloud-computing offerings employ the utility computing model, which is analogous to how traditional utility services (such as electricity) are consumed, whereas others bill on a subscription basis. Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among multiple tenants can improve utilization rates, as servers are not unnecessarily left idle, which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development. A side-effect of this approach is that overall computer usage rises dramatically, as customers do not have to engineer for peak load limits.[15] In addition, "increased high-speed bandwidth" makes it possible to receive the same. The cloud is becoming increasingly associated with small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as in many cases they cannot justify or afford the large capital expenditure of traditional IT. SMEs also typically have less existing infrastructure, less bureaucracy, more flexibility, and smaller capital budgets for purchasing in-house technology. Similarly, SMEs in emerging markets are typically unburdened by established legacy infrastructures, thus reducing the complexity of deploying cloud solutions.[citation needed]
Economics
Cloud computing users avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software, and services when they pay a provider only for what they use. Consumption is usually billed on a utility (resources consumed, like electricity) or subscription (time-based, like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. Other benefits of this approach are low barriers to entry, shared infrastructure and costs, low management overhead, and immediate access to a broad range of applications. In general, users can terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty), and the services are often covered by service level agreements (SLAs) with financial penalties.[16][17]
According to Nicholas Carr, the strategic importance of information technology is diminishing as it becomes standardized and less expensive. He argues that the cloud computing paradigm shift is similar to the displacement of private factory power generators by utility power plants early in the 20th century.[18]
Although companies might be able to save on upfront capital expenditures, they might not save much and might actually pay more for operating expenses. In situations where the capital expense would be relatively small, or where the organization has more flexibility in their capital budget than their operating budget, the cloud model might not make great economic sense. Other factors having an impact on the scale of potential cost savings include the efficiency of a company's data center as compared to the cloud vendor's, the company's existing operating costs, the level of adoption of cloud computing, and the type of functionality being hosted in the cloud.[19][20]
Among the items that some cloud hosts charge for are instances (often with extra charges for high-memory or high-CPU instances), data transfer in and out, storage (measured by the GB-month), I/O requests, PUT requests and GET requests, IP addresses, and load balancing. In some cases, users can bid on instances, with pricing dependent on demand for available instances.[21]
02-03-2011, 01:27 PM
Post: #7
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
Cloud computing is a paradigm shift in which computing is moved away from personal computers and even the individual enterprise application server to a ‘cloud’ of computers. This is really amazing and outstanding.
17-03-2011, 04:40 PM
Post: #8
green cloud

.doc  the full.. document on green cloud.doc (Size: 309 KB / Downloads: 277)
Abstract
Cloud computing is offering utility oriented IT services to users world wide. It enables hosting of applications from consumer, scientific and business domains. However data centers hosting cloud computing applications consume huge amounts of energy, contributing to high operational costs and carbon footprints to the environment. With energy shortages and global climate change leading our concerns these days, the power consumption of data centers has become a key issue. Therefore, we need green cloud computing solutions that can not only save energy, but also reduce operational costs. The vision for energy efficient management of cloud computing environments is presented here. A green scheduling algorithm which works by powering down servers when they are not in use is also presented.
Introduction
In 1969, Leonard Klein rock, one of the chief scientists of the original Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) which seeded the Internet, said: “As of now, computer networks are still in their infancy, but as they grow up and become sophisticated, we will probably see the spread of „computer utilities‟ which, like present electric and telephone utilities, will service individual homes and offices across the country.” This vision of computing utilities based on a service provisioning model anticipated the massive transformation of the entire computing industry in the 21st century whereby computing services will be readily available on demand, like other utility services available in today’s society. Similarly, users (consumers) need to pay providers only when they access the computing services. In addition, consumers no longer need to invest heavily or encounter difficulties in building and maintaining complex IT infrastructure.
In such a model, users access services based on their requirements without regard to where the services are hosted. This model has been referred to as utility computing, or recently as Cloud computing. The latter term denotes the infrastructure as a “Cloud” from which businesses and users can access applications as services from anywhere in the world on demand. Hence, Cloud computing can be classified as a new paradigm for the dynamic provisioning of computing services supported by state-of-the-art data centers that usually employ Virtual Machine (VM) technologies for consolidation and environment isolation purposes . Many computing service providers including Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, and IBM are rapidly deploying data centers in various locations around the world to deliver Cloud computing services.
CLOUD COMPUTING
Cloud computing delivers infrastructure, platform, and software (applications) as services, which are made available to consumers as subscription-based services under the pay-as-you-go model. In industry these services are referred to as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS) respectively. A recent Berkeley report stated “Cloud Computing, the long-held dream of computing as a utility, has the potential to transform a large part of the IT industry, making software even more attractive as a service”.
Clouds aim to drive the design of the next generation data centers by architecting them as networks of virtual services (hardware, database, user-interface, application logic) so that users can access and deploy applications from anywhere in the world on demand at competitive costs depending on their QoS (Quality of Service) requirements .
Need of Cloud Computing
The need of cloud computing can be explained with the help of an example. The following graph shows the number of users who log on to the Australian web page.
The spikes correspond to the month of January during which the tournament is going on. The site remains almost dormant during the rest of the year. It would be wasteful to have servers which can cater to the maximum need, as they won’t be needed during the rest of the year. The concept of cloud computing comes to the rescue at this time. During the peak period, cloud providers such as Google, Yahoo, and Microsoft etc.can be approached to provide the necessary server capacity.
In this case, Infrastructure is provided as a service (IaaS) through cloud computing. Likewise, cloud providers can be approached for obtain software or platform as a service. Developers with innovative ideas for new Internet services no longer require large capital outlays in hardware to deploy their service or human expense to operate it. Cloud computing offers significant benefits to IT companies by freeing them from the low-level task of setting up basic hardware and software infrastructures and thus enabling focus on innovation and creating business value for their services.
Green Computing
Green computing is defined as the study and practice of designing , manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment." The goals of green computing are similar to green chemistry; reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote the recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste. Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.
There are several approaches to green computing, namely
• Product longetivity
• Algorithmic efficiency
• Resource allocation
• Virtualisation
• Power management etc.
Need of green computing in clouds
Modern data centers, operating under the Cloud computing model are hosting a variety of applications ranging from those that run for a few seconds (e.g. serving requests of web applications such as e-commerce and social networks portals with transient workloads) to those that run for longer periods of time (e.g. simulations or large data set processing) on shared hardware platforms. The need to manage multiple applications in a data center creates the challenge of on-demand resource provisioning and allocation in response to time-varying workloads. Normally, data center resources are statically allocated to applications, based on peak load characteristics, in order to maintain isolation and provide performance guarantees. Until recently, high performance has been the sole concern in data center deployments and this demand has been fulfilled without paying much attention to energy consumption. The average data center consumes as much energy as 25,000 households [20]. As energy costs are increasing while availability dwindles, there is a need to shift focus from optimizing data center resource management for pure performance to optimizing for energy efficiency while maintaining high service level performance. According to certain reports, the total estimated energy bill for data centers in 2010 is $11.5 billion and energy costs in a typical data center double every five years.
Data centers are not only expensive to maintain, but also unfriendly to the environment. Data centers now drive more in carbon emissions than both Argentina and the Netherlands. High energy costs and huge carbon footprints are incurred due to massive amounts of electricity needed to power and cool numerous servers hosted in these data centers. Cloud service providers need to adopt measures to ensure that their profit margin is not dramatically reduced due to high energy costs. For instance, Google, Microsoft, and Yahoo are building large data centers in barren desert land surrounding the Columbia River, USA to exploit cheap and reliable hydroelectric power. There is also increasing pressure from Governments worldwide to reduce carbon footprints, which have a significant impact on climate change. For example, the Japanese government has established the Japan Data Center Council to address the soaring energy consumption of data centers. Leading computing service providers have also recently formed a global consortium known as The Green Grid to promote energy efficiency for data centers and minimize their environmental impact.
Lowering the energy usage of data centers is a challenging and complex issue because computing applications and data are growing so quickly that increasingly larger servers and disks are needed to process them fast enough within the required time period. Green Cloud computing is envisioned to achieve not only efficient processing and utilization of computing infrastructure, but also minimize energy consumption. This is essential for ensuring that the future growth of Cloud computing is sustainable. Otherwise, Cloud computing with increasingly pervasive front-end client devices interacting with back-end data centers will cause an enormous escalation of energy usage. To address this problem, data center resources need to be managed in an energy-efficient manner to drive Green Cloud computing. In particular, Cloud resources need to be allocated not only to satisfy QoS requirements specified by users via Service Level Agreements (SLA), but also to reduce energy usage.
04-06-2011, 03:56 PM
Post: #9
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
I think that is right place for asking to my question.I want to know what is difference between Saas companies and IT companies?Are they in competitor to each other?
12-06-2011, 11:59 PM
Post: #10
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
Hi, im writing on a cloud computing project and need some materials. My topic is "cloud computing as an emerging technology and its impact on businesses". Can you be of help please??
18-01-2012, 10:13 AM
Post: #11
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
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20-01-2012, 10:11 AM
Post: #12
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
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25-01-2012, 09:40 AM
Post: #13
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
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27-03-2012, 04:50 PM
Post: #14
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
cloud computing


.doc  CLOUD COMPUTINg Seminar data.doc (Size: 1.06 MB / Downloads: 76)

INTRODUCTION
The Greek myths tell of creatures plucked from the surface of the Earth and enshrined as constellations in the night sky. Something similar is happening today in the world of computing. Data and programs are being swept up from desktop PCs and corporate server rooms and installed in “the compute cloud”. In general, there is a shift in the geography of computation.
What is cloud computing exactly? As a beginning here is a definition
“An emerging computer paradigm where data and services reside in massively scalable data centers in the cloud and can be accessed from any connected devices over the internet”
Like other definitions of topics like these, an understanding of the term cloud computing requires an understanding of various other terms which are closely related to this. While there is a lack of precise scientific definitions for many of these terms, general definitions can be given.
Cloud computing is an emerging paradigm in the computer industry where the computing is moved to a cloud of computers. It has become one of the buzz words of the industry. The core concept of cloud computing is, quite simply, that the vast computing resources that we need will reside somewhere out there in the cloud of computers and we’ll connect to them and use them as and when needed.


CLOUD COMPUTING
A definition for cloud computing can be given as an emerging computer paradigm where data and services reside in massively scalable data centers in the cloud and can be accessed from any connected devices over the internet
Cloud computing is a way of providing various services on virtual machines allocated on top of a large physical machine pool which resides in the cloud. Cloud computing comes into focus only when we think about what IT has always wanted - away to increase capacity or add different capabilities to the current setting on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel or licensing new software. Here ‘on the fly’ and ‘without investing or training’ becomes the keywords in the current situation. But cloud computing offers a better solution.


2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF CLOUD COMPUTING
1. Self Healing
Any application or any service running in a cloud computing environment has the property of self healing. In case of failure of the application, there is always a hot backup of the application ready to take over without disruption. There are multiple copies of the same failure there is at least one copy of the application which can take over without even the slightest change in its running state.
2. Multi-tenancy
With cloud computing, any application supports multi-tenancy - that is multiple tenants at the same instant of time. The system allows several customers to share the infrastructure allotted to them without any of them being aware of the sharing. This is done by virtualizing the servers on the available machine pool and then allotting the servers to multiple users. This is done in such a way that the privacy of the users or the security of their data is not compromised.


NEED FOR CLOUD COMPUTING
What could we do with 1000 times more data and CPU power? One simple question. That’s all it took the interviewers to bewilder the confident job applicants at Google. This is a question of relevance because the amount of data that an application handles is increasing day by day and so is the CPU power that one can harness.
There are many answers to this question. With this much CPU power, we could scale our businesses to 1000 times more users. Right now we are gathering statistics about every user using an application. With such CPU power at hand, we could monitor every single user click and every user interaction such that we can gather all the statistics about the user. We could improve the recommendation systems of users. We could model better price plan choices. With this CPU power we could simulate the case where we have say 100,000 users in the system without any glitches.


Public cloud
Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense, whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-service basis over the Internet, via web applications/web services, from an off-site third-party provider who shares resources and bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis.

Private cloud
Private cloud and internal cloud are neologisms that some vendors have recently used to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. These products claim


. CONCLUSION
Cloud computing is a powerful new abstraction for large scale data processing systems which is scalable, reliable and available. In cloud computing, there are large self-managed server pools available which reduces the overhead and eliminates management headache. Cloud computing services can also grow and shrink according to need. Cloud computing is particularly valuable to small and medium businesses, where effective and affordable IT tools are critical to helping them become more productive without spending lots of money on in-house resources and technical equipment. Also it is a new emerging architecture needed to expand the Internet to become the computing platform of the future.
13-04-2012, 04:57 PM
Post: #15
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
cloud computing Project Idea


.pdf  Cloud.pdf (Size: 2.45 MB / Downloads: 87)

What is Driving Cloud Computing


Easier for application vendors to reach new customers
• Lowest cost way of delivering and supporting applications
• Ability to use commodity server and storage hardware
• Ability to drive down data center operational cots
• In one word: economics


What are the Barriers to Cloud Computing?


#1 Service Level Agreements
• What if something goes wrong?
• What is the true cost of providing SLAs?
• #2 Business Models
• SaaS/PaaS models are challenging
• Much lower upfront revenue
• #3 Customer Lock-in
• Customers want open/standard APIs
• Need to continuously add value



The Private Enterprise Cloud


Harness the advantages of clouds for the enterprise
• Cost-effective datacenter infrastructure
• Server and storage resource pools
• High Availability and Reliability in Software
• Virtual application environment
• Separation of processing and storage
• On-demand Application Deployment
• Greatly increases server utilization
• Prioritization based on business requirements


Private Cloud Architecture Elements


• Server Virtualization
• Enable any app to run on any server anytime
• Highly Available Storage
• Network block and file servers
• Low latency, high-bandwidth network
• Enable application mobility in the cloud
• Pre-emptive application scheduler
• Implements business rules and priorities
• Low-cost industry standard servers
• Transcend hardware failures with software


Conclusions (cont)
• Cloud Computing is the fastest growing part of IT
• Tremendous benefits to customers of all sizes
• Cloud services are simpler to acquire and scale up or down
• Key opportunity for application and infrastructure vendors
• Public clouds work great for some but not all applications
• Private clouds offer many benefits for internal applications
• Public and private clouds can be used in combination
30-04-2012, 12:39 PM
Post: #16
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
cloud computing


.pdf  Cloud-computing.pdf (Size: 407.6 KB / Downloads: 93)


Introduction

According to Gartner’s Hype Cycle Special Report for 2009, “technologies at the ‘Peak of Inflated Expectations’ during 2009 include cloud computing, e-books… and Internet TV, while social software and microblogging sites…have tipped over the peak and will soon experience disillusionment among enterprise users”. Is cloud computing also heading for the trough of disillusionment?


Pros and Cons of Cloud Computing

The great advantage of cloud computing is “elasticity”: the ability to add capacity or applications almost at a moment’s notice. Companies buy exactly the amount of storage, computing power, security and other IT functions that they need from specialists in data-center computing. They get sophisticated data center services on demand, in only the amount they need and can pay for, at service levels set with the vendor, with capabilities that can be added or subtracted at will.


Virtualization and Private Clouds
Virtualization of computers or operating systems hides the physical characteristics of a computing platform from users; instead it shows another abstract computing platform. A hypervisor is a piece of virtualization software that allows multiple operating systems to run on a host computer concurrently. Virtualization providers include VMware, Microsoft, and Citrix Systems (see Table 1). Virtualization is an enabler of cloud computing.


Applicability
Not everyone agrees, but McKinsey has concluded1 as follows. “Clouds already make sense for many small and medium-size businesses, but technical, operational and financial hurdles will need to be overcome before clouds will be used extensively by large public and private enterprises. Rather than create unrealizable expectations for “internal clouds”, CIOs should focus now on the immediate benefits of virtualizing server storage, network operations, and other critical building blocks”. They recommend that users should develop an overall strategy based on solid business cases not “cloud for the sake of cloud”; use modular design in all new software to minimize costs when it comes time to migrate to the cloud; and set up a Cloud CIO Council to advise industry.

Applications in the Pharmaceutical Industry

In the pharmaceutical sector, where large amounts of sensitive data are currently kept behind protective firewalls, security is a real concern, as is policing individual researchers’ access to the cloud. Nevertheless, cheminformatics vendors are starting to look at cloud options, especially in terms of Software as a Service (SaaS) and hosted informatics. In bioinformatics and number-crunching, the cloud has distinct advantages. EC2 billing is typically hours times number of cpus, so, as an over-generalization, the cost for 1 cpu for 1000 hours is the same as the cost of 1000 cpus for 1 hour.
05-05-2012, 12:08 PM
Post: #17
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
cloud computing



.doc  Cloud Computing.doc (Size: 111.5 KB / Downloads: 39)

Introduction
Background


Cloud Computing is one of the most impacting technology innovations today. Significant investments have been
made on several initiatives in the start-up world, major technology players as well as business institutions. All
participants and stakeholders in the Technology and IT Services industry are keenly involved in understanding what
it can offer, how it can change the information technology landscape, its impact on their businesses, benefits it can
provide as well as the challenges associated in leveraging the concept.
Cloud computing is the convergence of several concepts - from virtualization, distributed applications, grid, maturity
of enterprise software applications and enterprise IT management - to enable a dynamic, flexible and economic
approach for deploying and scaling enterprise IT.
Cloud Computing is fundamentally based on the long-held dream of performing Computing as a Utility; it has the
potential to transform a large part of the IT industry, making software even more attractive as a service and shaping
the way IT hardware is designed, purchased, provisioned and managed. With the universal adoption of Internet as a
global platform for business, adoption of virtualized hardware platforms for processing needs, maturity of enterprise
technologies on the Internet platform to deliver enterprise grade business applications, it is becoming apparent that
computing as Utility is now a distinct possibility. Businesses have now moved beyond the control-and-manage
mindset when it comes to business applications which enable adoption of utility based models, not only for
hardware requirements, but also for functionally rich, process integrated and domain intensive software
applications.
Businesses have become more resilient in the wake of the recent economic downturn and there is a significant shift in
the way IT investments are planned and implemented today. Cloud computing is tremendously attractive to
businesses as it enables them to fundamentally shift their capital intensive focus to a flexible operational
management model. In this flexible model, businesses need not be concerned about over-investing for services
which are not profitable, thus wasting expensive resources, or under-investing for services that deliver outstanding
results, thus missing potential customers and revenue. The critical need to achieve this flexibility and the related
intrinsic behaviors will accelerate the (already high pitched) focus on cloud computing.
There are several successful examples of this model in the industry today. Virtualization solutions for hardware
platforms have proven to be widely successful and most of the Financial Services institutions have initiated or
running enterprise wide programs in this area. Software as a Service (SaaS) is also prominently successful in specific
functional areas (like Sales Force Automation, Origination, etc) and Platform Solutions have been successfully
deployed for many of the corporate functions (like F&A, HR, Procurement, Reconciliations, etc).
This paper focuses on understanding the potential impact of Cloud Computing Solutions in the Banking and
Financial Services industry, setting the overall context of the current state, looking at the various considerations for
adoption and solution possibilities in the near future.
This paper is intended for senior Technologists, Service Delivery Managers, Enterprise Architects and Portfolio
Owners who run the IT portfolio in BFS institutions as well as others who are interested in this concept.

Cloud Computing-Strategic considerations for Banking & Financial Services Institutions

Cloud Computing-Strategic considerations for Banking & Financial Services Institutions
TCS believes that Cloud Computing will prove very attractive to the Enterprise IT world and specifically to IT service
providers, primarily due the infinite opportunities around innovative business models. While the technology
foundations of Cloud Computing can be considered as a gradual evolution, TCS firmly believes that the business
models will prove to be potentially disruptive.

Key Definitions
While the industry is abuzz with the hype around Cloud Computing, there is still considerable debate on what Cloud
Computing actually means. There are multiple definitions of the concept, scope, content, capabilities, expectations,
strategies, technologies and architectures.
In simple terms cloud computing is a style of computing where massively scalable IT-enabled capabilities are
provided as a service over the network. A Cloud is a set of IT infrastructure optimization techniques rolled into one and
offered as a shared service to its users. A Cloud Computing model is generally characterized by:
lA true on-demand computing paradigm
lDecoupling of application design and development from deployment
lAutomated system deployment and scaling
lA pay-per-use pricing model
lFlexible access models
Cloud computing delivery models can be distinguished based on the level of abstractions they export to the Cloud
users (or programmers) and the level of computing resource management (flexibility) they offer. Based on this
characterization, today’s Cloud delivery models can be broadly

classified into three categories:
1. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): These Cloud service providers offer computational resources such as servers,
network, and storage from a shared facility managed by the provider to Cloud users on an on-demand basis.
2. Platform as a Service (PaaS): The Cloud service providers export application development platforms that
broadly fall into two categories - Those that export application development platforms for certain domains or
class of applications (Ex: Google AppEngine and Force.com) and those that export general purpose application
development platforms (Ex: Microsoft’s Azure).
3. Software as a service (SaaS): The Software as a Service Cloud service providers offer specific application services
delivered over the Internet on some form of on-demand payment system (Ex: Salesforce.com).
Cloud computing deployment model is characterized into four categories:

lPublic Cloud - Public cloud services are characterized as being available to clients from a third party service
provider via the Internet. This does not mean that a user’s data is publically visible; public cloud vendors typically
provide an access control mechanism for their users. Public clouds provide an elastic, cost effective means to
deploy solutions.
lPrivate Cloud - A private cloud offers many of the benefits of a public cloud computing environment, such as
being elastic and service based. In addition, data and processes are managed within the organization without the
restrictions of network bandwidth, security exposures and legal requirements that using public cloud services
might entail. This offers greater control of the cloud infrastructure, improving security and resiliency.
lCommunity Cloud - A community cloud is controlled and used by a group of organizations that have shared
interests, such as specific security requirements or a common mission. The members of the community share
access to the data and applications in the cloud.
lHybrid Cloud - A hybrid cloud is a combination of a public and private cloud that interoperates. In this model
users typically outsource non-business-critical information and processing to the public cloud, while keeping
business-critical services and data in their control.
There are significant unknowns and challenges associated with Cloud Computing; while the concept has been
existing for multiple years, core capabilities to enable enterprise adoption is still in nascent state.

Industry Forecasts

The IT industry forecasts exponential investments and adoption rates for Cloud Computing. This is corroborated by
the reactions and behavior within the businesses which are preparing themselves for growth as the economy turns
the corner.
l69% of North America’s Internet users are using some form of Internet-based computing, such as web-based email
or photo storage, according to a study by Pew Research Center; more than 55% of North American users are
part of Social Communities which run on typical cloud computing environments today. It is already established
and successful in the Social space.
l“By 2011, early technology adopters will forego capital expenditures and instead purchase 40 percent of their IT
infrastructure as a service,” states Gartner Group. “Increased high-speed bandwidth makes it practical to locate
infrastructure at other sites and still receive the same response times."
lWhat impact will a long-term, global recession have on cloud computing? A survey by ScanSafe, a SaaS provider
of security services, revealed that 78% of IT managers believe economic uncertainty makes SaaS more
15-05-2012, 10:40 AM
Post: #18
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
cloud computing


.doc  cloud computing documentation report.doc (Size: 292.5 KB / Downloads: 41)

. Introduction



Imagine yourself in the world where the users of the computer of today’s internet world don’t have to run, install or store their application or data on their own computers, imagine the world where every piece of your information or data would reside on the Cloud (Internet).
As a metaphor for the Internet, "the cloud" is a familiar cliché, but when combined with "computing", the meaning gets bigger and fuzzier. Some analysts and vendors define cloud computing narrowly as an updated version of utility computing: basically virtual servers available over the Internet. Others go very broad, arguing anything you consume outside the firewall is "in the cloud", including conventional outsourcing.
Cloud computing comes into focus only when you think about what we always need: a way to increase capacity or add capabilities on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel, or licensing new software. Cloud computing encompasses any subscription-based or pay-per-use service that, in real time over the Internet, extends ICT's existing capabilities.
Cloud computing is at an early stage, with a motley crew of providers large and small delivering a slew of cloud-based services, from full-blown applications to storage services to spam filtering. Yes, utility-style infrastructure providers are part of the mix, but so are SaaS (software as a service) providers such as Salesforce.com. Today, for the most part, IT must plug into cloud-based services individually, but cloud computing aggregators and integrators are already emerging.

Cloud computing- The Concept

Cloud computing is Internet ("cloud") based development and use of computer technology ("computing"). It is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.
The concept incorporates infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and software as a service (SaaS) as well as Web 2.0 and other recent technology trends which have the common theme of reliance on the Internet for satisfying the computing needs of the users. Examples of SaaS vendors include Salesforce.com and Google Apps which provide common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the servers.
The term cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on how the Internet is depicted in computer network diagrams, and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals.

Comparison:
Cloud computing is often confused with grid computing ("a form of distributed computing whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely-coupled computers, acting in concert to perform very large tasks"), utility computing (the "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility such as electricity") and autonomic computing ("computer systems capable of self-management").
Indeed many cloud computing deployments as of 2009 depend on grids, have autonomic characteristics and bill like utilities — but cloud computing can be seen as a natural next step from the grid-utility model. Some successful cloud architectures have little or no centralized infrastructure or billing systems whatsoever, including peer-to-peer networks like Bit Torrent and Skype and volunteer computing like


Implementation:
The majority of cloud computing infrastructure as of 2009 consists of reliable services delivered through data centers and built on servers with different levels of virtualization technologies. The services are accessible anywhere that has access to networking infrastructure. The Cloud appears as a single point of access for all the computing needs of consumers. Commercial offerings need to meet the quality of service requirements of customers and typically offer service level agreements. Open standards are critical to the growth of cloud computing and open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations.

Characteristics:
As customers generally do not own the infrastructure, they merely access or rent, they can avoid capital expenditure and consume resources as a service, paying instead for what they use. Many cloud-computing offerings have adopted the utility computing model, which is analogous to how traditional utilities like electricity are consumed, while others are billed on a subscription basis. Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among multiple tenants can improve utilization rates, as servers are not left idle, which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development. A side effect of this approach is that "computer capacity rises dramatically" as customers do not have to engineer for peak loads. Adoption has been enabled by "increased high-speed bandwidth" which makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites.

Economics:
Cloud computing users can avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software and services, rather paying a provider only for what they use. Consumption is billed on a utility (e.g. resources consumed, like electricity) or subscription (e.g. time based, like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. Other benefits of this time sharing style approach are low barriers to entry, shared infrastructure and costs, low management overhead and immediate access to a broad range of applications. Users can generally terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty) and the services are often covered by service level agreements with financial penalties.
18-05-2012, 03:04 PM
Post: #19
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
Cloud computing



.docx  Cloud computing.docx (Size: 111.19 KB / Downloads: 38)
Cloud computing is a technology that uses the internet and central remote servers to maintain data and applications. Cloud computing allows consumers and businesses to use applications without installation and access their personal files at any computer with internet access. This technology allows for much more efficient computing by centralizing storage, memory, processing and bandwidth.
A simple example of cloud computing is Yahoo email, Gmail, or Hotmail etc. You dont need a software or a server to use them. All a consumer would need is just an internet connection and you can start sending emails. The server and email management software is all on the cloud ( internet) and is totally managed by the cloud service provider Yaho , Google etc. The consumer gets to use the software alone and enjoy the benefits. The analogy is , 'If you need milk , would you buy a cow ?' All the users or consumers need is to get the benefits of using the software or hardware of the computer like sending emails etc. Just to get this benefit (milk) why should a consumer buy a (cow) software /hardware ?




Cloud computing companies

At the present time of modern world, you don’t need to carry large amounts of documents with you during traveling from town to town or country to country, because a lot of cloud computing companies are available to serve you. Cloud computing is one kind of web-based storage that permits you to store numerous information from everywhere. You only you need to have an internet connection, and a subscription from any of the cloud computing companies.
Nowadays, online business is expanding day by day. Many people show eagerness to earn extra money through online business. They need to communicate with their large amount of target audiences. They have to share their business policy with clients. They have to set several meetings with their partners also. If they have no cloud computing system, they will have to face a lot of problems in carrying the documents. But now with the help of cloud computing companies you don’t need to carry these documents with you.



Why The Cloud Computing Market Is Always Growing

Nowadays, cloud computing service is one kind of cost-saving technique offered by the cloud computing companies. It is mainly helpful to store files online. A lot of business companies don’t know the use of brilliant cloud computing technique and they have no cost saving technique in their hands. Cloud computing is the excellent way to save the money in any business policy and best medium to focus the objectives of the company.
Mainly, cloud computing is one kind of model to use storage space online.



Most Popular Cloud Computing Providers

There are a number of cloud computing companies on market now, but it is relatively difficult to choose the best one for your business purpose. Who is excellent cloud provider it is very important to know because it will be handy to fulfill your requirements. At the time of researching, you should check the criteria of that cloud provider. Here are some basic requirements for identifying the excellent and popular cloud computing providers below:
29-05-2012, 01:46 PM
Post: #20
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
CLOUD COMPUTING



.pdf  cloud.pdf (Size: 462.9 KB / Downloads: 935)

INTRODUCTION

Cloud computing is the next natural step in the evolution of on-demand information technology services and products. To a large extent cloud computing will be based on virtualized resources. The idea of cloud computing is based on a very fundamental principal of `reusability of IT capabilities`. The difference that cloud computing brings compared to traditional concepts of ―grid computing‖, ―distributed computing‖, ―utility computing‖, or ―autonomic computing‖ is to broaden horizons across organizational boundaries.
According to the IEEE Computer Society Cloud Computing is:
"A paradigm in which information is permanently stored in servers on the
Internet and cached temporarily on clients that include desktops,
Entertainment centers, table computers, notebooks, wall computers, handhelds, etc."
Though many cloud computing architectures and deployments are powered by grids, based on autonomic characteristics and consumed on the basis of utilities billing, the concept of a cloud is fairly distinct and complementary to the concepts of grid, SaaS, Utility Computing etc. In theory, cloud computing promises availability of all required hardware, software, platform, applications, infrastructure and storage with an ownership of just an internet connection.
people can access the information that they need from any device with an Internet connection—including mobile and handheld phones—rather than being chained to the desktop. It also means lower costs, since there is no need to install software or hardware.‖


Concepts

A powerful underlying and enabling concept is computing through service-oriented architectures (SOA) - delivery of an integrated and orchestrated suite of functions to an end-user through composition of both loosely and tightly coupled functions, or services - often network based. Related concepts are component-based system engineering, orchestration of different services through workflows, and virtualization.

Cyber infrastructure

Cyber infrastructure makes applications dramatically easier to develop and deploy, thus expanding the feasible scope of applications possible within budget and organizational constraints, and shifting the scientist’s and engineer’s effort away from information technology development and concentrating it on scientific and engineering research. Cyber infrastructure also increases efficiency, quality, and reliability by capturing commonalities among application needs, and facilitates the efficient sharing of equipment and services.
Today, almost any business or major activity uses, or relies in some form, on IT and IT services. These services need to be enabling and appliance-like, and there must be an economy of- scale for the total-cost-of-ownership to be better than it would be without cyber infrastructure. Technology needs to improve end-user productivity and reduce Technology-driven overhead

Service-Oriented Architecture

SOA is not a new concept, although it again has been receiving considerable attention in recent years [e.g., Bel08, IBM08a]. Examples of some of the first network-based service-oriented architectures are remote procedure calls (RPC), DCOM and Object Request Brokers (ORBs) based on the CORBA specifications . A more recent example are so called ―Grid Computing‖ architectures and solutions . In an SOA environment end-users request an IT service (or an integrated collection of such services) at the desired functional, quality and capacity level, and receive the reponse at the time requested or at a specified later time. Service discovery, brokering, and reliability are important .Goal of the SOA is that creating an architecture in which servises are able to communicate using http protocol It is expected that in the next 10 years, service-based solutions will be a major vehicle for delivery of information and other IT assisted functions at both individual and organizational levels.


Cloud Architecture
Cloud architecture the systems architecture of the software systems involved
in the delivery of cloud computing, comprises hardware and software designed by a cloud architect who typically works for a cloud integrator. It typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually web services.
This closely resembles the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts.
28-06-2012, 05:17 PM
Post: #21
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
Cloud computing


.doc  Cloud computing project.doc (Size: 242.5 KB / Downloads: 55)

Characteristics

Cloud computing customers do not generally own the physical infrastructure serving as host to the software platform in question. Instead, they avoid capital expenditure by renting usage from a third-party provider. They consume resources as a service and pay only for resources that they use. Many cloud-computing offerings employ the utility computing model, which is analogous to how traditional utility services (such as electricity) are consumed, while others bill on a subscription A side effect of this approach is that overall computer usage rises dramatically, as customers do not have to engineer for peak load limits. Additionally, "increased high-speed bandwidth" .

Cloud computing users can avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software, and services when they pay a provider only for what they use. Consumption is usually billed on a utility (e.g. resources consumed, like electricity) or subscription (e.g. time based, like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. A few cloud providers are now beginning to offer the service for a flat monthly fee as opposed to on a utility billing basis. Other benefits of this time sharing style approach are low barriers to entry, shared infrastructure and costs, low management overhead, and immediate access to a broad range of applications. Users can generally terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty) and the services are often covered by service level agreements (SLAs) with financial penalties.

Companies:

The "big four" of cloud computing services are said to be Amazon, Google, Microsoft and Salesforce.com. Cloud computing is also being adopted by individual users through large enterprise customers including General Electric, Procter & Gamble and Valeo.

Disadvantages:

Because cloud computing does not allow users to physically possess the storage of their data (the exception being the possibility that data can be backed up to a user-owned storage device, such as a USB flash drive or hard disk), it does leave responsibility of data storage and control in the hands of the provider. Responsibility for backup data, disaster recovery and other static "snapshots" has been a long-standing concern for both outsourced as well as resident IT systems. Additional issues are raised around process (methods, functions, transactions, etc.) visibility and transportability given the more complex nature of cloud and web service systems.. QoS (Quality of Service), SLAs (Service Level Agreements) and other parametric behaviors need to be specified as well as monitored for compliance.

Political issues:

The Cloud spans many borders and "may be the ultimate form of globalization." As such, it becomes subject to complex geopolitical issues, and providers are pressed to satisfy myriad regulatory environments in order to deliver service to a global market. This dates back to the early days of the Internet, when libertarian thinkers felt that "cyberspace was a distinct place calling for laws and legal institutions of its own".
30-07-2012, 03:31 PM
Post: #22
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
main theme of cloud computing for agent based urban transpotation systems
14-08-2012, 05:12 PM
Post: #23
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
cloud computing



.rtf  cloud computing .rtf (Size: 232.01 KB / Downloads: 55)

INTRODUCTION

Cloud computing is a promising computing paradigm which recently has drawn extensive attention from both academia and industry. By combining a set of existing andnew techniques from research areas such as Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA) and virtualization, cloud computing is regarded as such a computing paradigm in which resources in the computing infrastructure are provided as services over the Internet.Along with this new paradigm, various business models are developed, which can be described by terminology of “X as a service (XaaS)”,where X could be software,hardware, data storage, and etc. Successful examples are Amazon’s EC2 and S3,Google App Engine and Microsoft Azure which provide users with scalableresources in the pay-as-you use fashion at relatively low prices. For example Amazon S3 data storage service just charges $0.12 to $0.15 per gigabyte month.
As compared to building their own infrastructures, users are able to save their investments significantlyby migrating businesses into the cloud. With the increasing development of cloudcomputing technologies, it is not hard to imagine that in the near future more and morebusinesses will be moved into the cloud.Cloud computing is also facing many challenges that, if not well resolved, may impede its fast growth. Data security, as it exists in many other applications, is among these challenges that would raise great concerns from users when they store sensitive information on cloud servers. These concerns originate from the fact that cloud servers are usually operated by commercial providers which are very likely to be outside of the trusted domain of the users.
Data confidential against cloud servers is hence frequently desired when users outsource data for storage in the cloud. In some practical applicationsystems, data confidentiality is not only a security/privacy issue, but also of juristic concerns. For example, in healthcare application scenarios use and disclosure of protected health information (PHI) should meet the requirements of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), and keeping user data confidential against the storage servers is not just an option, but a requirement.
Furthermore, we observe that there are also cases in which cloud users themselves are content providers. They publish data on cloud servers for sharing and need fine-grained data access control in terms of which user (data consumer) has the access privilege to which types of data. In thehealth care case, for example, a medical center would be the data owner who stores millions of healthcare records in the cloud. It would allow data consumers such as doctors, patients, researchers and etc, to access various types of healthcare records under policies admitted by HIPAA. To enforce these access policies, the data owners on one hand would like to take advantage of the abundant resources that the cloud provides for efficiency and economy, on the other hand, they may want to keep the data contents confidential against cloud servers.
We address this open issue and propose a secure and scalable fine-grained dataaccess control scheme for cloud computing. Our proposed scheme is partially based on our observation that, in practical application scenarios each data file can be associated with a set of attributes which are meaningful in the context of interest. The access structure of each user can thus be defined as a unique logical expression over these attributes to reflect the scope of data files that the user is allowed to access.As the logical expression can represent any desired data file set, fine-grainedness of data access control is achieved.

To enforce these access structures, we define a publickey component for each attribute. Data files are encrypted using public key components corresponding to their attributes. User secret keys are defined to reflect their accessstructures so that a user is able to decrypt a cipher text if and only if the data file attributes satisfy his access structure. Such a design also brings about the efficiency benefit, as compared to previous works.1) the complexity of encryption is just related the number of attributes associated to the data file, and is independent to the number of users in the system
2) data file creation/deletion and new user grantoperations just affect current file/user without involving system-wide data file update or re-keying.

One extremely challenging issue with this design is the implementation of user revocation, which would inevitably require re-encryption of data files accessible to the leaving user, and may need update of secret keys for all the remaining users. If all these tasks are performed by the data owner himself/herself, it would introduce a heavy computation overhead on him/her and may also require the data owner to be always online. To resolve this challenging issue, our proposed scheme enables the data owner to delegate tasks of data file re-encryption and user secret key update to cloud servers without disclosing data contents or user access privilege information. We achieve ourdesign goals by exploiting a novel cryptographic primitive, namely key policy attribute-based encryption.

MODELS AND ASSUMPTIONS
System Models


Similar to Enabling Public Verifiability and Data Dynamics for Storage Securityin Cloud Computing,we assume that the system is composed of the following parties,the Data Owner, many Data Consumers, many Cloud Servers, and a Third Party Auditor if necessary. To access data files shared by the data owner, Data Consumers, or users for brevity, download data files of their interest from Cloud Servers and then decrypt.
Neither the data owner nor users will be always online. They come online just on the necessity basis. For simplicity, we assume that the only access privilege for users is datafile reading. Extending our proposed scheme to support data file writing is trivial by asking the data writer to sign the new data file on each update as does. From now on,we will also call data files by files for brevity.
Cloud Servers are always online and operated by the Cloud Service Provider (CSP). They are assumed to have abundant storage capacity and computation power. The Third Party Auditor is also an online party which is used for auditing every file access event. In addition, we also assume that the data owner can not only store data files but also run his own code on Cloud Servers to manage his data files.
This assumption coincides with the unified ontology of cloudcomputing which is recently proposed by Youseff et al.

Security Models

In this work, we just consider Honest but Curious Cloud Servers as Over-encryption: Management of access control evolution on outsourced data does. That is to say, Cloud Servers will follow our proposed protocol in general, but try to find out as much secret information as possible based on their inputs. More specifically, we assume Cloud Servers are more interested in file contents and user access privilege information than other secret information. Cloud Servers might collude with a small number of malicious users for the purpose of harvesting file contents when it is highly beneficial.Communication channel between the data owner/users and Cloud Servers are assumed to be secured under existing security protocols such as SSL. Users would try to access files either within or outside the scope of their access privileges. To achieve this goal,unauthorized users may work independently or cooperatively. In addition, each party is preloaded with a public/private key pair and the public key can be easily obtained byother parties when necessary.

Design Goals

Our main design goal is to help the data owner achieve fine-grained access control on files stored by Cloud Servers. Specifically, we want to enable the data owner to enforce a unique access structure on each user, which precisely designates the set of files that the user is allowed to access. We also want to prevent Cloud Servers from beingable to learn both the data file contents and user access privilege information. In addition,the proposed scheme should be able to achieve security goals like user accountability and support basic operations such as user grant/revocation as a general one-to-many communication system would require. All these design goals should be achieved efficiently in the sense that the system is scalable.

SYSTEM STUDY
EXISTING SYSTEM


Our existing solution applies cryptographic methods by disclosing data decryption keys only to authorized users. These solutions inevitably introduce a heavy computationoverhead on the data owner for key distribution and data management when fine graineddata access control is desired, and thus do not scale well.
Disadvantages

Software update/patches-
could change security settings, assigning privileges too low, or even more alarmingly too high allowing access to your data by other parties.

•Securityconcerns-
Experts claim that their clouds are 100% secure - but it will not be their head on the block when things go away. It's often stated that cloudcomputing security is better than most enterprises. Also, how do you decide which data to handle in the cloud and which to keep to internal systems – once decided keeping it secure could well be a full-time task?

•Control-
Control of your data/system by third-party. Data - once in the cloud always in the cloud! Can you be sure that once you delete data from your cloud account will it not exist any more or will traces remain in the cloud?

PROPOSED SYSTEM

Main Idea


In order to achieve secure, scalable and fine-grained access control on outsourceddata in the cloud, we utilize and uniquely combine the following three advancedcryptographic techniques:
•Key Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (KP-ABE).
•Proxy Re-Encryption (PRE)
•Lazy re-encryption

Advantages
•Low initial capital investment
•Shorter start-up time for new services
•Lower maintenance and operation costs
•Higher utilization through virtualization
•Easier disaster recovery

More specifically, we associate each data file with a set of attributes, and assign each user an expressive access structure which is defined over these attributes. To enforce this kind of access control,we utilize KP-ABE to escort data encryption keys of data files. Such a construction enables us to immediately enjoy fine-grainedness of access control. However, this construction, if deployed alone, would introduce heavy computation overhead and cumbersome onlineburden towards the data owner, as he is in charge of all the operations of data/user management. Specifically, such an issue is mainly caused by the operation of user revocation, which inevitably requires the dataowner to re-encrypt all the data files accessible to the leaving user, oreven needs the data owner to stay online to update secret keys for users. To resolve this challenging issue and make the construction suitable for cloud computing, we uniquely combine PRE with KP-ABEand enable the data owner to delegate most of the computation intensive operations to Cloud Servers without disclosing the underlying file contents. Such a construction allows the data owner to control access of his data files with a minimal overhead in terms of computation effort and online time, and thus fits well into the cloud environment. Data confidentiality is also achieved since Cloud Servers are not able to learn the plaintext of any data file in our construction.For further reducing the computation overhead on Cloud Servers and thus saving the data owner’s investment, we take advantage of the lazy re-encryption technique and allow Cloud Servers to “aggregate”computation tasks of multiple system operations. As the computation complexity on Cloud Servers is either proportional to the number of system attributes, or linear to the size of the user access structure/tree, which is independent to the number of users in the system. Scalability is thus achieved. In addition, our construction also protects user access privilege information against Cloud Servers. Accountability of user secret key can also be achieved by using an enhanced scheme of KP-ABE.
04-10-2012, 11:09 AM
Post: #24
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
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22-10-2012, 11:56 AM
Post: #25
RE: cloud computing Project Idea
Cloud computing


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In Computer science, Cloud computing is a marketing term. In the case of electricity, users can simply use it. They do not need to worry where the electricity is from, how it is generated, or transported. At the end of the month, they will get a bill for the amount of electricity they consumed.
The idea behind cloud computing is similar: The user can simply use storage, computing power, or specially crafted development environments, without having to worry how these work internally. Cloud computing is a systems architecture model for Internet-based computing. It is the development and use of computer technology on the Internet. The cloud is a metaphor for the Internet based on how the internet is described in computer network diagrams; which means it is an abstraction hiding the complex infrastructure of the internet.[1] It is a style of computing in which IT-related capabilities are provided “as a service”,[2] allowing users to access technology-enabled services from the Internet ("in the cloud")[3] without knowledge of, or control over the technologies behind these servers.[4]
According to a paper published by IEEE Internet Computing in 2008 "Cloud Computing is a paradigm in which information is permanently stored in servers on the Internet and cached temporarily on clients that include computers, laptops, handhelds, sensors, etc."[5]
Cloud computing is a general concept that utilizes software as a service (SaaS), such as Web 2.0 and other technology trends, all of which depend on the Internet for satisfying users' needs. For example, Google Apps provides common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the Internet servers.

Brief

Comparisons

Cloud computing is often confused with grid computing (a form of distributed computing whereby a "super and virtual computer" is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely-coupled computers, working together to perform very large tasks), utility computing (the packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage are provided as a measured service that have to be paid similar to a traditional public utility such as electricity)[6] and autonomic computing (computer systems capable of self-management).[7]
Many cloud computing deployments are today powered by grids, have autonomic characteristics and are billed like utilities, but cloud computing can be seen as a natural next step from the grid-utility model.[8] Some successful cloud architectures have little or no centralised infrastructure or billing systems at all including peer-to-peer networks like BitTorrent and Skype.[9]

Architecture

The majority of cloud computing infrastructure currently consists of reliable services delivered through data centers that are built on computer and storage virtualization technologies. The services are accessible anywhere in the world, with The Cloud appearing as a single point of access for all the computing needs of consumers. Commercial offerings need to meet the quality of service requirements of customers and typically offer service level agreements.[10] Open standards and open source software are also critical to the growth of cloud computing.[11]

Characteristics

As customers generally do not own the infrastructure or know all details about it, mainly they are accessing or renting, so they can consume resources as a service, and may be paying for what they do not need, instead of what they actually do need to use. Many cloud computing providers have adopted the utility computing model which is analogous to how traditional public utilities like electricity are consumed, while others are billed on a subscription basis. By sharing consumable and "intangible" computing power between multiple "tenants", utilization rates can be improved (as servers are not left idle) which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development. A side effect of this approach is that "computer capacity rises dramatically" as customers do not have to engineer for peak loads.[12] Adoption has been enabled by "increased high-speed bandwidth" which makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites.

Providers

Cloud computing is being driven by providers including Google, Amazon.com, and Yahoo! as well as traditional vendors including IBM, Intel[13], Microsoft[14] and SAP[15]. It is adopted from individual users through large enterprises as General Electric.

History

The Cloud[18] is a metaphor for the Internet,[19] or more generally components and services which are managed by others.[1]
The underlying concept dates back to 1960 when John McCarthy expressed his opinion that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility" and the term Cloud was already in commercial use in the early 1990s to refer to large ATM networks.[20] By the turn of the 21st century, cloud computing solutions had started to appear on the market,[21] though most of the focus at this time was on Software as a service.
Amazon.com played a key role in the development of cloud computing when upgrading their data centers after the dot-com bubble and providing access to their systems by way of Amazon Web Services in 2002 on a utility computing basis. They found the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements.[22]
2007 observed increased activity, including Google, IBM and a number of universities starting large scale cloud computing research project,[23] around the time the term started gaining popularity in the mainstream press. It was a hot topic by mid-2008 and numerous cloud computing events had been scheduled.[24]
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