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Tags: braingate, technology, braingate technology, braingate technology ppt, braingate technology pdf, braingate system, braingate system ppt, braingate neural interface system, braingate software, brain gate 2, braingate seminar report, braingate project, braingate chip, braingate gold,
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28-01-2010, 12:45 PM
Post: #1
braingate technology

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by using power of the mind its possible turn thoughts into action

for paralyzed patients, such as turning of the tv, stereo or lights

with brain waves. brain gate technology has to do with brain mappingA

bundle of wires as thick as a coaxial cable runs from a connector in

human scalp to a refrigerator-sized cart of electronic gear. Inside

his brain, a tiny array of microelectrodes picks up the cacophony of

his neural activity; processors recognize the patterns associated

with arm motions and translate them into signals that control the

Pong paddle, draw with a cursor, operate a TV, and open email. . It

could be the next big thing. Just a minute, while looking at the

garage and the garage door went up. Seriously though, the

possibilities are endless. brain-computer interfaces can return

function to people paralyzed by injury or disease. BCI is the most

sophisticated ever tested on a human being, the culmination of two

decades of research in neural recording and decoding. A Foxborough,

Massachusetts-based company called Cyberkinetics built the system,

named BrainGate.BrainGate„¢ collects and analyzes the brainwaves of individuals with pronounced physical disabilities, turning thoughts into actions

#This technology is associated with a brain computer interface chip,
computer and brain.
#The chip so called is, implanted in human brain in the motor cortex
region.
#The chip contains an internal signal sensor and external processor
that
converts neural signals into an output signal or we can say thoughts
are directly converted into computer control.
#This technology is based on to sense, transmit, analysis and apply

the
language of neurons.
#It consist of a sensor that is implanted on the motor cortex of the
brain and a device that analyses brain signals. The signals generated
by brain are interpreted and translated into cursor movement in
computer screen to control the computer.
#The chip is a size of a Aspirin tablet of 2mmx2mm in size.
#It is a 96 hair thin electrode sensor that detects brain cell

electrical
activity.
#The chip provides a fast, reliable and unobtrusive connection

between
the brain of a severely disabled person and personal computer.
reference:
http://learning.berkeley.edu/cipolat/PDF...plants.pdf

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10-02-2010, 04:16 PM
Post: #2
RE: braingate technology
Abstract: Brain Gate was developed by the bio-tech company Cyberkinetics in 2003 in Conjunction with the department of h:euroscience Brown University. The device was designed to help those who have lost control of their limbs or other body function. The computer chip u-hich is implanted into the brain, monitors brain activity in the patient and convert the intension of the user into computer hands. Currently the chip used 100 hair-thin electrodes that hear neurons firing in specific area of the brain. For e.g.: the area that control the arm movement .the acti\-it\- is translated into eclectically charged signals and are then set and decoded using a proLmm thus mo\.in,o the arm. According to the Cyberkinetics website, 2 patients have been implanted ivith the Brain Gate. The Brain GateTM System is based on Cyber kinetics' platform technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons. The S>.stem consists of a sensor that is implanted on the motor cortex of the brain and a device that anal~.zesb rain signals. The principle of operation behind the Brain GateTM System is that nrith intact brain function, brain signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms. hands and legs. The signals are interpreted and , translated into cursor movements. offering the user an alternate "Brain GateTM pathway" to control a computer with thought, just as individuals who have the ability to move their hands use a mouse

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11-02-2010, 08:17 PM
Post: #3
RE: braingate technology

.doc  BrainGate.doc (Size: 410.5 KB / Downloads: 541)


ABSTRACT
Brain Gate was developed by the bio-tech company Cyberkinetics in 2003 in Conjunction with the department of Neuroscience Brown University.
The device was designed to help those who have lost control of their limbs or other body function. The computer chip which is implanted into the brain, monitors brain activity in the patient and convert the intension of the user into computer hands. Currently the chip used 100 hair-thin electrodes that hear neurons firing in specific area of the brain. For e.g.: the area that control the arm movement .the activity is translated into eclectically charged signals and are then set and decoded using a program thus moving the arm. According to the Cyberkinetics website, 2 patients have been implanted with the Brain Gate.
The Brain Gate„¢ System is based on Cyber kinetics" platform technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons. The System consists of a sensor that is implanted on the motor cortex of the brain and a device that analyzes brain signals. The principle of operation behind the Brain Gate„¢ System is that with intact brain function, brain signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms, hands and legs. The signals are interpreted and translated into cursor movements, offering the user an alternate "Brain Gate„¢ pathway" to control a computer with thought, just as individuals who have the ability to move their hands use a mouse.
2. DESCRIPTION
2.1 A MEDICAL PRODUCT
The Brain Gate„¢ Neural Interface System is currently the subject of a pilot clinical trial being conducted under an Investigational Device Exemption (LDE) from the FDA. The system is designed to restore functionality for a limited, immobile group of severely motor-impaired individuals. It is expected that people using the Brain Gate„¢ System will employ a personal computer as the gateway to a range of self-directed
activities. These activities may extend beyond typical computer functions to include the control of objects in the environment such as a telephone, a television and lights.
The Brain Gate„¢ System is based on Cyber kinetics' platform technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons. The System consists of a sensor that is implanted on the motor cortex of the brain and a device that anah^es brain signals. The principle of operation behind the Brain Gate„¢ System is that with intact brain function, brain signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms, hands and legs. The signals are interpreted and translated into cursor movements, offering the user an alternate "Brain Gate„¢ pathway" to control a computer with thought, just as individuals who have the ability to move their hands use a mouse.
Cyber kinetics is further developing the Brain Gate„¢ System to potentially provide limb movement to people with severe motor disabilities. The goal of this development program would be to allow these individuals to one day use their own arms and hands again. Limb movement developments are currently at the research stage and are not available for use with the existing Brain Gate„¢ System. In addition Cyber kinetics is developing products to allow for robotic control, such as a thought-controlled wheelchair.
2.2PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY
Neurons are cells that use a language of electrical impulses to communicate messages from the brain to the rest of the body. At Cyber kinetics, we have the technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons. We are developing products to restore function, as well as to monitor, detect, and respond to a variety of neurological diseases and disorders.
¢ Sense
Cyber kinetics' unique technology is able to simultaneously sense the electrical activity of many individual neurons. Our sensor consists of a silicon array about the size of a baby aspirin that contains one hundred electrodes, each thinner than a human hair. The array is implanted on the surface of the brain. In the Brain Gate„¢ Neural Interface System, the array is implanted in the area of the brain responsible for limb movement. In other applications the array may be implanted in areas of the brain responsible for other body processes.
¢ Transmit and Analyze
The human brain is a super computer with the ability to instantaneously process vast amounts of information. Cyber kinetics' technology allows for an extensive amount of electrical activity data to be transmitted from neurons in the brain to computers for analysis. In the current BrainGate„¢
System, a bundle consisting of one hundred gold wires connects the array to a pedestal which extends through the scalp. The pedestal is connected by an external cable to a set of computers in which the data can be stored for off-line analysis or analyzed in real-time. Signal processing software algorithms analyze the electrical activity of neurons and translate it into control signals for use in various computer-based applications.
¢ Apply
Cyber kinetics' ability to generate control signals and develop computer application interfaces provides us with a platform to develop multiple clinical products. For example, using the Brain Gate„¢ Neural Interface System, a person may be able to use his thoughts to control cursor motion and/or replicate keystrokes on a computer screen. In another example, a doctor may study patterns of brain electrical activity in patients with epilepsy before, during and after seizures.
¢ Brain Gate
Brain Gate was developed by the bio-tech company Cyber kinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University. The device was designed to help those who have lost control of their limbs, or other bodily functions. The computer chip, which is implanted into the brain, monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user into computer commands. Currently the chip uses 100 hair-thin electrodes that 'hear' neurons firing in specific areas of the brain, for example, the area that controls arm movement. The activity is translated into electrically charged signals and are then sent and decoded using a program, thus moving the arm. According to the Cyber kinetics' website, two patients have been implanted with the Brain Gate system.
2.3 BRAINGATE INTERFACE
December 7,2004 an implantable, brain-computer interface the size of an aspirin has been clinically tested on humans by American company Cyber kinetics. The 'Brain Gate' device can provide paralysed or motor-impaired patients a mode of communication through the translation of thought into direct computer control. The technology driving this breakthrough in the Brain-Machine-Interface field has a myriad of potential applications.
including the development of human augmentation for military and commercial purposes.
Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have already demonstrated that a monkey can feed itself with a robotic arm simply by using signals from its brain, an advance that could enhance prosthetics for people, especially those with spina] cord injuries. Now, using the Brain Gate system in the current human trials, a 25 year old quadriplegic has successfully been able to switch on lights, adjust the volume on a TV. change channels and read e-mail using only his brain. Crucially, the patient was able to do these tasks while carrying on a conversation and moving his head at the same time
About the Brain Gate device:-
The Brain Gate Neural Interface Device is a proprietary brain-computer interface that consists of an internal neural signal sensor and external processors that convert neural signals into an output signal under the users own control. The sensor consists of a tiny chip smaller than a baby aspirin, with one hundred electrode sensors each thinner than a hair that detect brain cell electrical activity.
2.4 BRAIN GATE
computer.
Again, the stuff of science fiction becomes a reality. A company called Cyber kinetics has created a technology that allows for the creation of direct, j'jjil!, jl^s reliable and bi-directional interfaces between the brain, nervous system and a
Their technology platform is called Brain Gate. It is the hope of this technology to translate thought into direct computer control. Cyber kinetics
describes that "such applications may include novel communications interfaces for motor impaired patients, as well as the monitoring and treatment of certain diseases which manifest themselves in patterns of brain activity, such as epilepsy and depression."
The Brain Gate neural interface device is based on ten years of development at Brown University; it is intended to provide severely disabled patients with a permanent, direct and reliable interface to a personal computer. Pending continued preclinical research success and regulatory approval by the Food and Drug Administration, the Company intends to initiate a pilot clinical trial this year.
2.5 BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE
New research into how signals from the brain can be captured by a computer or other device to carry out an individual's command may allow people with motor disabilities to more full communicate and function in their daily lives.
The technique relies on the fact that multiple sensors acting together provide the central nervous system with important feedback for controlling movement. For example, sensors called muscle spindles that are embedded in muscle fibers measure the length and speed of muscle stretch, while other sensors in the skin respond to stretch and pressure. When an individual is paralyzed by injury or disease, neural signals from these sensors cannot reach the brain, and thus cannot be used to control motor responses. Paralysis also keeps neural signals originating in the motor regions of the brain from reaching the muscles.
The work of Weber and his colleagues shows that it is possible to extract feedback information from the body's natural sensors that could then be used to control a prosthetic device, allowing an individual to regain some command and control of his or her own movements.
A sterile surgical procedure is used to implant arrays of 36 microelectrodes into the dorsal root ganglion, part of the spinal nerve that contains the nerve cell bodies that house these natural sensors. Historically, it was difficult to record from these sensors because their cell bodies are located in this difficult-to-reach nerve bundle entering the spinal cord. The wires from the microelectrode array are led out through the skin to a small electrical conductor. The procedure allows simultaneous recordings from many sensory nerves during normal motor activities such as walking. A digital camera tracks the position of the leg, and a mathematical analysis relates ! the sensory activity to leg movement. The investigators found that fewer than 10 neurons are needed to accurately predict the path of the leg. This finding is encouraging because it suggests that a small number of neurons could provide the feedback signals needed to control a prosthetic device.
"The principle of operation of the BrainGate Neural Interface System is that with intact brain function, neural signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms, hands and legs. These signals are interpreted by the System and a cursor is shown to the user on a computer screen that provides an alternate "BrainGate pathway". The user can use that cursor to control the computer, just as a mouse is used".
(From Forbidden Planet 1956)
Cyberkinetics has plans to implant the devices in 4 more subjects; the company cautions that BrainGate is an investigational device for clinical testing only. It is not an approved device.
Development:-
Experiments were performed on dogs who were raised confined in cages. When released, the dogs were excited, constantly ran around, and required several attempts to learn to avoid pain. When pain such as a pinch or contact with a burning match was encountered, the animals could not take action to avoid the stimulus immediately. This finding seemed to demonstrate that pain is understood and avoided only by experience- aversion to it is not inbuilt or automatic, and the organism has no way to know what will cause repeated pain without a repeated experience.
Physiology:-
Afferent pain-receptive nerves, those that bring signals to the brain, comprise at least two kinds of fibers - a fast, relatively thick, myelinated "A8" fiber that carries messages quickly with intense pain, and a small, unmyelinated, slow "C" fiber that carries the longer-term throbbing and chronic pain. Large-diameter Afi fibers are nonnociceptive and inhibit the effects of firing by A8 and C fibers. The central nervous system has centers at which pain stimuli can be regulated. Some areas in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that are involved in receiving pain stimuli from A8 and C fibers, called laminae, also receive input from Ap fibers. In other parts of the laminae, pain fibers also inhibit the effects of nonnociceptive fibers, 'opening the gate'.
An inhibitory connection may exist with AP and C fibers, which may form a synapse on the same projection neuron. The same neurons may also form synapses with an inhibitory interneuron that also synapses on the projection neuron, reducing the chance that the latter will fire and transmit pain stimuli to the brain. The C fiber's synapse would inhibit the inhibitory interneuron, indirectly increasing the projection neuron's chance of firing. The Ap fiber, on the otherhand, forms an excitatory connection with the inhibitory interneuron, thus decreasing the projection neuron's chance of firing (like the C fiber, the AP fiber also has an excitatory connection on the projection neuron itself). Thus, depending on the relative rates of firing of C and AP fibers, the firing of the nonnociceptive fiber may inhibit the firing of the projection neuron and the transmission of pain stimuli
Gate control theory thus explains how stimulus that activates only nonnociceptive nerves can inhibit pain. The pain seems to be lessened when the area is rubbed because activation of nonnociceptive fibers inhibits the firing of nociceptive ones in the laminae In transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS), nonnociceptive fibers are selectively stimulated with electrodes in order to produce this effect and thereby lessen pain.
One area of the brain involved in reduction of pain sensation is the periaqueductal gray matter that surrounds the third ventricle and the cerebral aqueduct of the ventricular system. Stimulation of this area produces analgesia (but not total numbing) by activating descending pathways that directly and indirectly inhibits nociceptors in the laminae of the spinal cord. It also activates opioid receptor-containing parts of the spinal cord.
Afferent pathways interfere with each other constructively, so that the brain can control i the degree of pain that is perceived, based on which pain stimuli are to be ignored to pursue J potential gains. The brain determines which stimuli are profitable to ignore over time. Thus, the brain controls the perception of pain quite directly, and can be "trained" to turn off forms of pain that are not "useful". This understanding led Melzack to point out that pain is in the brain.
Brain-computer interface:-
A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct technological interface between a brain and a computer not requiring any motor output from the user. That is, neural impulses in the brain are intercepted and used to control an electronic device. This is a rather broad, ill-defined term used to describe many versions of conventional and theoretical interfaces. For purposes of this term, the word brain is understood to imply the physical brain of an organic life form and computer is understood to imply a mechanical/technological processing/computational device. These semantic notations are crucial in the contemplation of a direct brain-computer interface, as there is great debate in the philosophy of mind regarding the reduction of consciousness and mind to the physical qualities of the brain. Because of cortical plasticity, the brain is likely to adapt during learning to operate a BCI.
Neuroprosthetics:-
Simple brain-computer interfaces already exist in the form of neuroprosthetics, with a great deal of neuroscience, robotics, and computer science research currently dedicated to furthering these technologies. Recent achievements demonstrate that it is currently possible to implement crude brain-computer interfaces (brain dishes) that allow in vitro neuronal clusters to directly control computers. Laboratories led by investigators Andrew Schwartz (U. Pittsburgh), Richard Andersen (Caltech), Miguel Nicolelis (Duke), and John Donoghue (Brown University) have all successfully used a variety of algorithms, including the vector sum of motor cortical neuron spiking, to record directly from the cortex of monkeys to operate a BCI. This design allowed a i monkey to navigate a computer cursor on screen, as well as command a robotic arm to perform simple tasks, simply by thinking about moving the cursor without any motor output from the monkey.
Studies that developed algorithms to reconstruct movements from the activity of motor cortex neurons date back to the 1970s. Work by groups led by Schmidt, Fetz, and Baker in the 1970s established that monkeys could quickly achieve voluntary control over the firing rate of individual neurons in primary motor cortex under closed-loop operant conditioning. Phillip Kennedy and colleagues built the first wireless, intracortical brain-computer interface by implanting neurotrophic cone electrodes first into monkeys and then into the brains of paralyzed patients. Several groups have explored real-time reconstruction of more complex motor parameters using recordings from neural ensembles, including research groups lead by Miguel Nicolelis, John Donoghue, Andrew Schwartz, Richard Andersen and more recently Krishna Shenoy, Nicho Hatsopoulos, Ad Aertsen, Eilon Vaadia, Lee Miller, Andrew Fagg, Dawn Taylor, and Eric Leuthardt.
BCIs in monkeys.
There has been explosive development in BCIs since
the mid-1990s. Miguel Nicolelis has been a prominent proponent of multi-unit, multi-area recordings from neural ensembles to obtain high-quality neuronal signals to drive a BCI. After conducting initial studies in rats during the 1990s, Nicolelis and his colleagues started to develop BCIs that decoded brain activity in monkeys and used it to reproduce monkey movements in robotic arms. Monkeys have advanced reaching and grasping abilities and good hand manipulation skills making the ideal test subjects for this kind of work.
Nicolelis' group conducted their initial primate experiments using owl monkeys. By 2000, they had gained experience in implanting owl monkeys with electrode arrays in multiple < brain areas and built a BCI that reproduced monkey movements while the monkey operated a joystick or reached for food.
Later experiments led by Miguel Nicolelis on rhesus monkeys succeeded in closing the loop. Rhesus monkeys are also considered to be better models for human neurophysiology than owl monkeys. The monkeys were trained to reach and grasp objects on a computer screen by manipulating a joystick .Their BCI used velocity predictions to control reaching movements. The BCI simultaneously predicted hand gripping force. Reaching and grasping was produced by a robot, which remained invisible to the monkeys. The feedback of the robot's performance was provided by a visual display. Later, the monkeys learned to control the robots directly using their implants while directly viewing the movement of the arm.
Other leading labs that develop BCIs and neuroprosthetic decoding algorithms include John Donoghue from Brown University, Andrew Schwartz from the University of Pittsburgh and Richard Andersen from Caltech. Although these researchers initially could not record from as many neurons as Nicolelis and coworkers (15-30 neurons versus 50-200 neurons), they were able to make important advances. A study by Donoghue's group reported that monkeys were able to use the team's BCI without training to track visual targets on a computer screen. Schwartz's group created a BCI for three-dimensional tracking (Taylor et al., 2002). Andersen's group incorporated in their BMI design cognitive signals recorded in the posterior parietal cortex, such as encoding of reaching the target and anticipated reward. John Donoghue and Nicho Hatsopoulos also took this research to the business arena by starting Cyberkinetics, the company that puts development of practical BCIs for humans as its major goal.
In addition to predicting kinematic and kinetic parameters of limb movements, BCIs that predict electromyographic activity of muscles are being developed (Santucci et al. 2005). Such BCIs could be used in neuroprosthetic devices that restore mobility in paralyzed limbs by electrical stimulation of muscles.
2.6 BRAIN TAP
Scientists Gingerly Tap Into Brain's Power
by Kevin Maney - USA TODAY October 11, 2004
Today's science fiction could be tomorrow's reality - . .¢. 'JffiAudU^. and a
whole new world for everyone from paraplegics to fighter pilots
in a
Fox borough, Mass. - A 25-year-old quadriplegic sits
wheelchair with wires coming out of a bott'e-cap-size ft
connector stuck in his skull. *<¦
The wires run from 100 tiny sensors imp'anted in his ' ca^:'"2-X-:-.'-M'kW^S brain
and out to a computer. Using just his thoughts, this former high school football player is p!a>ing the computer game Pong.
It is part of a breakthrough trial, the first o^its kind, with far-reaching implications. Friday, early results were revealed at the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation annual conference. Cyberkinetics Neurotechnology Systems, the Foxborough-based company behind the technology, told attendees the man can use his thoughts to control a computer well enough to operate a TV, open e-mail and play Pong with "'0oo accuracy.
"The patient tells me this device has changed his life." says Jon Mukand, a physician caring for him at a rehabilitation facility in Warwick. R.I. The patient, who had the sensors implanted in June, has not been publicly identified. The significance of the technology, which Cyberkinetics call Braingate, goes far beyond the initial effort to help quadriplegics. It is an early step toward learning to read signals from an array of neurons and use computers and algorithms to translate the signals into action. That could lead to artificial limbs that work like the real thing: The user could think of moving a finger, and the finger would move.
j Neural activity V.Y.V VP converted to
r] output signal
The computer translates the signals into communication output, allowing a patiennomovea cursor on a computer screen merely by thinking about it.
Connecting brains to computers:-A way to help quadriplegics Cyber kinetics, a company commercializing technology developed
I
1 at Brown University, just reported the results of its first attempt to implant sensors into the brain of a quadriplegic. Signals from the sensor allow him to control a computer.
The brain in control:-
DMI is a field about to explode. At Duke University a research team has employed different methods to read and interpret neural signals directly from the human brain. Other research is underway at universities around the world. Atlanta-based Neural Signals - a pioneer in BMI for the handicapped - has also been developing a system for tapping directly into the brain
Patient gaining accuracy:-
Cyberkinetics technicians work with the former football player three times a week, trying to fine-tune the system so he can do more tasks. He can move a cursor around a screen. If he leaves the cursor on a spot and dwells on it, that works like a mouse click.
Once he can control a computer, the possibilities get interesting. A computer could drive a motorized wheelchair, allowing him to go where he thinks about going. It could control his environment - lights, heat, locking or unlocking doors. And he could tap out e-mails, albeit slowly,
3. CONCLUSION
The Brain Gate„¢ System is based on Cyber kinetics' platform technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons. The System consists of a sensor that is implanted on the motor cortex of the brain and a device that analyzes brain signals. It will now be possible for a patient with spinal cord injury to produce brain signals that relay the intention of moving the paralyzed limbs, as signals to an implanted sensor, which is then output as electronic impulses. These impulses enable the user to operate mechanical devices with the help of a computer cursor.
The brain in prior theories of neurochemistry had simply not been taken into account - pain was thought to be simply a direct response to a stimulus - the so-called pain/pleasure theory, a one-way "alarm system" like that proposed by Rene Descartes. This did not, for instance, explain why a carpenter can hit his thumb and not feel much pain, whereas a novice is doubled over in agony, nor did it explain phantom limb pain, when the signal is in fact impossible to receive, since the wiring for it is gone.
A major advantage of the theory is that those being taught pain control techniques can actually be told why they work. This seems to play a major role in achieving results - which is explained most readily by psychoneuroimmunology, in which the nerves are seen as the link between the immune system and sensory and cognitive experience.
4. FUTURE SCOPE
Brain Gate, a tiny sensor array implanted in the brain, has allowed a quadriplegic man to check e-mail and play computer games - even manipulate the controls on a television. It is the most sophisticated implant of its kind.
In the future, the Brain Gate„¢ System could be used by those individuals whose injuries are less severe. Next generation products may be able to provide an individual with the ability to control devices that allow breathing, bladder and bowel movements Once he can control a computer, the possibilities get interesting. A computer could drive a motorized wheelchair, allowing him to go where he thinks about going. It could control his environment - lights, heat, locking or unlocking doors. And he could tap out e-mails, albeit slowly.
Further out, some experts believe, the technology could be built into a helmet or other device that could read neural signals from outside the skull, non-invasively. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is funding research in this field, broadly known as Brain Machine Interface, or BMI.
To be certain, the technology today is experimental and crude, perhaps at a stage similar to the first pacemaker in 1950, which was the size of a boom box and delivered jolts through wires implanted in the heart.
1. http://www.Seminartopics.net.
2. http://www.Google.com.
3. http://www.wikipedia.com
5. BIBLIOGRAPHY
CONTENTS
Page No:
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. DESCRIPTION
2.1) A MEDICAL PRODUCT 2
2.2) PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY 3
2.3) BRAINGATE INTERFACE 5
2.4) BRAINGATE 6
2.5) BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE 7
2.6) BRAIN-TAP 14
3. CONCLUSION 18
4. FUTURE SCOPE 19
5. BIBLIOGRAPHY 20
25-04-2010, 12:35 PM
Post: #4
RE: braingate technology

.doc  Brain gate system.doc (Size: 511 KB / Downloads: 396)


BRAIN GATE SYSTEM

Presented By:
MOHD.AZHAR ALI
II/II B.Tech (EEE)
ABSTRACT:
BrainGate is a brain implant system developed by the bio-tech company Cyberkinetics in 2008 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University. The device was designed to help those who have lost control of their limbs, or other bodily functions, such as patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spinal cord injury. The computer chip, which is implanted into the brain, monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user into computer commands.
Currently the chip uses 96 hair-thin electrodes that sense the electro-magnetic signature of neurons firing in specific areas of the brain, for example, the area that controls arm movement. The activity is translated into electrically charged signals and are then sent and decoded using a program, which can move a robotic arm, a computer cursor, or even a wheelchair. According to the Cyberkinetics' website, three patients have been implanted with the BrainGate system. The company has confirmed that one patient (Matt Nagle) has a spinal cord injury, whilst another has advanced ALS.
In addition to real-time analysis of neuron patterns to relay movement, the Braingate array is also capable of recording electrical data for later analysis. A potential use of this feature would be for a neurologist to study seizure patterns in a patient with epilepsy.
In 2009, a monkey was using a device very similar to BrainGate to control a robotic arm.
The mind-to-movement system that allows a quadriplegic man to control a computer using only his thoughts is a scientific milestone. It was reached, in large part, through the brain gate system. This system has become a boon to the paralyzed. The Brain Gate System is based on Cyber kinetics platform technology to sense,transmit,analyze and apply the language of neurons. The principle of operation behind the Brain Gate System is that with intact brain function, brain signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms, hands and legs.The signals are interpreted and
translated into cursor movements, offering the user an alternate Brain Gate pathway to control a computer with
thought,just as individuals who have the ability to move their hands use a mouse.
The 'Brain Gate' contains tiny spikes that will extend down about one millimetre into the brain after being implanted beneath the skull,monitoring the activity from a small group of neurons.It will now be possible for a patient with spinal cord injury to produce brain signals that relay the intention of moving the paralyzed limbs,as signals to an implanted sensor,which is then output as electronic impulses. These impulses enable the user to operate mechanical devices with the help of a computer cursor. Matthew Nagle,a 25-year-old Massachusetts man with a severe spinal cord injury,has been paralyzed from the neck down since 2001.After taking part in a clinical trial of this system,he has opened e-mail,switched TV channels,turned on lights.He even moved a robotic hand from his wheelchair.
This marks the first time mind. that neural movement signals have been recorded and decoded in a human with spinal cord injury.The system is also the first to allow a human to control his surrounding environment using his
The BrainGate„¢ Company was founded by Chairman, Jeffrey M. Stibel and is led by a seasoned team of entrepreneurs whose goal is to advance movement through thought alone. This is achieved through partnership with leading academic institutions, corporations, and various non-profit and government organizations working on the research, science, and development of applied commercial technology.
How does the brain control motor function?
The brain is "hardwired" with connections, which are made by billions of neurons that make electricity whenever they are stimulated. The electrical patterns are called brain waves. Neurons act like the wires and gates in a computer, gathering and transmitting electrochemical signals over distances as far as several feet. The brain encodes information not by relying on single neurons, but by spreading it across large populations of neurons, and by rapidly adapting to new circumstances.
Motor neurons carry signals from the central nervous system to the muscles, skin and glands of the body, while sensory neurons carry signals from those outer parts of the body to the central nervous system. Receptors sense things like chemicals, light, and sound and encode this information into electrochemical signals transmitted by the sensory neurons. And interneurons tie everything together by connecting the various neurons within the brain and spinal cord. The part of the brain that controls motor skills is located at the ear of the frontal lobe.
How does this communication happen? Muscles in the body's limbs contain embedded sensors called muscle spindles that measure the length and speed of the muscles as they stretch and contract as you move. Other sensors in the skin respond to stretching and pressure. Even if paralysis or disease damages the part of the brain that processes movement, the brain still makes neural signals. They're just not being sent to the arms, hands and legs.
A technique called neurofeedback uses connecting sensors on the scalp to translate brain waves into information a person can learn from. The sensors register different frequencies of the signals produced in the brain. These changes in brain wave patterns indicate whether someone is concentrating or suppressing his impulses, or whether he is relaxed or tense.
NEUROPROSTHETIC DEVICE:
A neuroprosthetic device known as Braingate converts brain activity into computer commands. A sensor is implanted on the brain, and electrodes are hooked up to wires that travel to a pedestal on the scalp. From there, a fiber optic cable carries the brain activity data to a nearby computer.
PRINCIPLE:
"The principle of operation of the BrainGate Neural Interface System is that with intact brain function, neural signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms, hands and legs. These signals are interpreted by the System and a cursor is shown to the user on a computer screen that provides an alternate "BrainGate pathway". The user can use that cursor to control the computer, just as a mouse is used."
BrainGate is a brain implant system developed by the bio-tech company Cyberkinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University. The device was designed to help those who have lost control of their limbs, or other bodily functions, such as patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spinal cord injury. The computer chip, which is implanted into the patient and converts the intention of the use rinto computer commands.
NUERO CHIP:
Currently the chip uses 100 hair-thin electrodes that 'hear' neurons firing in specific areas of the brain, for example, the area that controls arm movement. The activity is translated into electrically charged signals and are then sent and decoded using a program, which can move either a robotic arm or a computer cursor. According to the Cyberkinetics' website, three patients have been implanted with the BrainGate system. The company has confirmed that one patient (Matt Nagle) has a spinal cord injury, whilst another has advanced ALS.
In addition to real-time analysis of neuron patterns to relay movement, the Braingate array is also capable of recording electrical data for later analysis. A potential use of this feature would be for a neurologist to study seizure patterns in a patient with epilepsy.
Braingate is currently recruiting patients with a range of neuromuscular and neurodegenerative conditions for pilot clinical trials in the United States.
WORKING:
Operation of the BCI system is not simply listening the EEG of user in a way that letâ„¢s tap this EEG in and listen what happens. The user usually generates some sort of mental activity pattern that is later detected and classified.
PREPROCESSING:
The raw EEG signal requires some preprocessing before the feature extraction. This preprocessing includes removing unnecessary frequency bands, averaging the current brain activity level, transforming the measured scalp potentials to cortex potentials and denoising. Frequency bands of the EEG :
DETECTION:
The detection of the input from the user and them translating it into an action could be considered as key part of any BCI system. This detection means to try to find out these mental tasks from the EEG signal. It can be done in time-domain, e.g. by. comparing amplitudes of the EEG and in frequency-domain. This involves usually digital signal processing for sampling and band pass filtering the signal, then calculating these time -or frequency domain features and then classifying them. These classification algorithms include simple comparison of amplitudes linear and non-linear equations and artificial neural networks. By constant feedback from user to the system and vice versa, both partners gradually learn more from each other and improve the overall performance.
CONTROL:
The final part consists of applying the will of the user to the used application. The user chooses an action by controlling his brain activity, which is then detected and classified to corresponding action. Feedback is provided to user by audio-visual means e.g. when typing with virtual keyboard, letter appears to the message box etc.
TRAINING:
The training is the part where the user adapts to the BCI system. This training begins with very simple exercises where the user is familiarized with mental activity which is used to relay the information to the computer. Motivation, frustration, fatigue, etc. apply also here and their effect should be taken into consideration when planning the training procedures
BIO FEEDBACK: The definition of the biofeedback is biological information which is returned to the source that created it, so that source can understand it and have control over it. This biofeedback in BCI systems is usually provided by visually, e.g. the user sees cursor moving up or down or letter being selected from the alphabet.
A BOON ON PARALYZED
BRAIN GATE NEUTRAL
INTERFACS SYSTEM
The first patient, Matthew Nagle, a 25-year-old Massachusetts man with a severe spinal cord injury, has been paralyzed from the neck down since 2001. Nagle is unable to move his arms and legs after he was stabbed in the neck. During 57 sessions, at New England Sinai Hospital and Rehabilitation Center, Nagle learned to open simulated e-mail, draw circular shapes using a paint program on the
computer and play a simple videogame, "neural Pong," using only his thoughts. He could change the channel and adjust the volume on a television, even while conversing. He was ultimately able to open and close the fingers of a prosthetic hand and use a robotic limb to grasp and move objects. Despite a decline in neural signals after few months, Nagle remained an active participant in the trial and continued to aid the clinical team in producing valuable feedback concerning the Brain Gate technology.
NAGLEâ„¢S STATEMENT:
I can't put it into words. It's just”I use my brain. I just thought it. I said, "Cursor go up to the top right." And it did, and now I can control it all over the screen. It will give me a sense of independence.
OTHER APPLICATIONS:
Rats implanted with BCIs in Theodore Berger's experiments.Several laboratories have managed to record signals from monkey and rat cerebral cortexes in order to operate BCIs to carry out movement. Monkeys have navigated computer cursors on screen and commanded robotic arms to perform simple tasks simply by thinking about the task and without any motor output. Other research on cats has decoded visual signals.
Garrett Stanley's recordings of cat vision using a BCI implanted in the lateral geniculate nucleus (top row: original image; bottom row: recording)
In 1999, researchers led by Garrett Stanley at Harvard University decoded neuronal firings to reproduce images seen by cats. The team used an array of electrodes embedded in the thalamus (which integrates all of the brainâ„¢s sensory input) of sharp-eyed cats. Researchers targeted 177 brain cells in the thalamus lateral geniculate nucleus area, which decodes signals from the retina. The cats were shown eight short movies, and their neuron firings were recorded. Using mathematical filters, the researchers decoded the signals to generate movies of what the cats saw and were able to reconstruct recognisable scenes and moving objects.
In the 1980s, Apostolos Georgopoulos at Johns Hopkins University found a mathematical relationship between the (based on a cosine function). He also found that dispersed groups of neurons in different areas of the brain collectively controlled motor commands but was only able to record the firings of neurons in one area at a time because of technical limitations imposed by his equipment.[4]
There has been rapid development in BCIs since the mid-1990s.[5] Several groups have been able to capture complex brain motor centre signals using recordings from neural ensembles (groups of neurons) and use these to control external devices, including research groups led by Richard Andersen, John Donoghue, Phillip Kennedy, Miguel Nicolelis, and Andrew Schwartz.
Diagram of the BCI developed by Miguel Nicolelis and collegues for use on Rhesus onkeys
Later experiments by Nicolelis using rhesus monkeys, succeeded in closing the feedback loop and reproduced monkey reaching and grasping movements in a robot arm. With their deeply cleft and furrowed brains, rhesus monkeys are considered to be better models for human neurophysiology than owl monkeys. The monkeys were trained to reach and grasp objects on a computer screen by manipulating a joystick while corresponding movements by a robot arm were hidden.The monkeys were later shown the robot directly and learned to control it by viewing its movements. The BCI used velocity predictions to control reaching movements and simultaneously predicted hand gripping force.
Other labs that develop BCIs and algorithms that decode neuron signals include John Donoghue from Brown University, Andrew Schwartz from the University of Pittsburgh and Richard Andersen from Caltech. These researchers were able to produce working BCIs even though they recorded signals from far fewer neurons than Nicolelis (15“30 neurons versus 50“200 neurons).
Donoghue's group reported training rhesus monkeys to use a BCI to track visual targets on a computer screen with or without assistance of a joystick (closed-loop BCI).[10] Schwartz's group created a BCI for three-dimensional tracking in virtual reality and also reproduced BCI control in a robotic arm.
ADVANTAGES
The brain crate system is based on cyber kinetics platform technology to sense, transmit analyze and apply the language of neurons.
The Brain Gate Neural Interface System is being designed to one day allow the interface with a computer and / or even faster than, what is possible with the hands of a person. The Brain Gate System may offer substantial improvement over existing technologies.
Currently available assistive device has significant limitations for both the pers and caregiver. For example, even simple switches must be adjusted frequent that can be time consuming. In addition, these devices are often obtrusive and user from being able to simultaneously use the device and at the same time contact or carry on conversations with others.
Potential advantages of the Brain Gate System over other muscle driven or brain computer interface approaches include : its potential to interface with a compute weeks or months of training; its potential to be used in an interactive environment userâ„¢s ability to operate the device is not affected by their speech, eye movement noise; and the ability to provide significantly more usefulness and utility than other approaches by connecting directly to the part of the brain that controls hand gestures.
DISADVANTAGES
The U.S. Food meansthat it has been approved for pre-market clinical trials. There are no estimates on cost or insurance at this time. and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved the Brain Gate Non Interface System for general use.But has been approved for IDE status
Sources:
The Brain Gate System is an investigational device in the United States, and is status (Investigational Device Exemption). In the United States, this investigate can only be used in pre-marketing clinical trials approved by the FDA.
CONCLUSION: The idea of moving robots or prosthetic devices not by manual control, but by mere thinking (i.e., the brain activity of human subjects) has been a fascinated approach. Medical cures are unavailable for many forms of neural and muscular paralysis. The enormity of the deficits caused by paralysis is a strong motivation to pursue BMI solutions. So this idea helps many patients to control the prosthetic devices of their own by simply thinking about the task.
This technology is well supported by the latest fields of Biomedical Instrumentation, Microelectronics, signal processing, Artificial Neural Networks and Robotics which has overwhelming developments. Hope these systems will be effectively implemented for many Biomedical applications.

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25-04-2010, 12:54 PM
Post: #5
RE: braingate technology

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Paper Presentation on
BRAIN GATE
DESCRIPTION
INRODUCTION
neuroprosthetic device known as Brain gate converts brain activity in to computer commands. A sensor is implanted on the brain, and electrodes are hooked up to wires that travel to a pedestal on the scalp.From there, a fiber optic cable carries that brain activity data to a near by computer.
The brain is hardwired with connections, which are made by billions of neurons that make electricity when ever they are simulated.The electrical patterns are called brain waves.Neurons act like the wires and gates in a computer.
Brain controls motor function.Motor neurons carry a signals from the central nervous system to the muscles,skin and glands of the body,while sensory neurons carry signals from those outer parts of the body to the central nervous system.
A technique called neurofeedback uses connecting sensors on the scalp to translate brain waves in to information a person can learn from.
The sensors register different frequencies of the signals produced in the brain.These changes in the brain wave patterns indicatr whether someone is concentrating or suppressing his impulses,or whether he is relaxed or tense.
¢ A brain “comput1er interface(BCI),some times called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface,is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain(or brain cell culture)and an external device.In one way BCIs,computer either accept commands from the brain or send signals to it(for example,to restore vision)but not both.Two-way BCIs would allow brains and external devices to exchange information in both diregtions but have yet to be successfully implanted in animals or humans.
¢ In this definition, the word brain means the brain or nervous system of an organile life form rather than the mind.computer means any processing or computational devices, from simple circuits to silicon chips .
¢ Brain gate is a brain implant system developed by a bio-tech company cyberkinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the department of neuroscience at brown university.The device was designed to help those who have lost control of their limps,or other bodily functions, such as patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS)or spinal cord injury. The computer chip,which was implanted in to the brain,monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user in to the computer commands.
¢ Brain gate depends upon the cyberkinetics.In addition to real-time analysis of neurons patterns to relay movement,the brain gate array is also capable of recording electrical data for later analysis.A potential use of this feature would be for a neurologist to study seizure patterns in a patient with epilepsy.Brain gate is currently recruiting patients with a range of neuromuscular and neurodegenerative conditions for pilot clinical trials in united states.
BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE (or) DIRED NEURAL INTERFACE.
A brain-computer interface (BCI),sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface,is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain and an external device.
In this definition, the word brai means the brain or nervous system of an organic life form rather than the mind.computer means any processing or computational device,from simple circuits to silicon chips.
Following years of animal expermentation,early working implants in humans now exist,designed to restore damaged hearing,sight and movement.
CLINICAL TRIALS
Partenering with leadind rehabilition centers in Boston ,Chicago and providence.
Cyberkinetics is currently recruiting patients to enroll ina pilot clinical trials of the neural interface system.
The braingate system is designed to provide a means for people with severe most impairement a new method to communicate with a computer directly with their investigational device,the brain gate system is only offered through the clinical commercially available.
The disclaimer in clinical trials are the U.S food and drug administration(FDA)has not approved the brain gate non interface system for general use
The brain gate system is an investigational device in the United states,and is uni status.

RESEARCH PRODUCT
Cyberkinetics neurotechnology systems provides turn-key solutions for neuroscience researchers invested in recording neural signals from populations of neurons over a long period of time. Their solutions include Multi electrode array ,the cerebus 128 channel data acquisition system,and a surgical training program.
A team of neuroscientists had implanted a chip in to the brain of a quadriplegic man,allowing him to control a computer has been able to check email and play computer games simply using thoughts. He can also turn lights on and off and control a television, all while talking and moving his head.
The chip called Brain gate,is being developed by Massachusetts-based neurotechnology company cyberkinetics.
PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY
Neurons are cells that use a language of electrical impulses to communicate messages from the brain to the rest of the body. At Cyberkinetics, we have the technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons. We are developing products to restore function, as well as to monitor, detect, and respond to a variety of neurological diseases and disorders.
Cyberkinetics offers a systems approach with a core technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons in both short and long-term settings. Our platform technology is based on the results of several years of research and development at premier a institutions such as Brown University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology University, and the University of Utah.
SENSE
Cyberkineticsâ„¢ unique technology is able to simultaneously sense the electrical a many individual neurons. Our sensor consists of a silicon array about the size of aspirin that contains one hundred electrodes, each thinner than a human hair. T implanted on the surface of the brain. In the BrainGate Neural Interface System is implanted in the area of the brain responsible for limb movement. In other aparry may be implanted in areas of the brain responsible for other body processes
TRANSMIT AND ANALYZE
The human brain is super computer with the ability to instantaneously process of information. Cyberkineticsâ„¢ technology allows for an extensive amount of elec data to be transmitted from neurons in the brain to computers for analysis. In Brain GateTM System, a bundle consisting of one hundred gold wires connects the pedestal which extends through the scalp. The pedestal is connected by an extert set of computers in which the data can be stored for off-line analysis or analyze Signal processing software algorithms analyze the electrical activity of neurons and translate it into control signals for use in various computer based applications.
BRAIN CHIP
Brain Gate offers the possibility of hitherto unimaginable levels of independence for the severely disabled. Although many are able to control computers with their eyes or tongue such techniques remain dependent on muscular function and require extensive training. The ultimate goal is to develop the Brain Gate System so that it can be linked to many useful devices, said Donoghuc, who this month received an innovation award from Discover Magazine for his work on Brain Gate. I his includes medical devices such as muscle stimulators, to give the physically disabled a significant improvement in their ability to interact with the world. The four-millimeter square chip, which is placed on the surface of the motor cortex area of the brain, contains 100 electrodes each thinner than a hair which detect neural electrical activity. The sensor is then connected to a computer via a small wire attached to a pedestal mounted on the skull. We now have early evidence that a person unable to move their arms hands and legs can quickly gain control of a system which uses thoughts to control a computer and perform meaningful tasks. With additional development this may represent a significant breakthrough for people with severe disabilities. They have a research participant who is capable of controlling his environment by thought alone-something we have only found in science fiction so far, said triehs. They hope that the trial will continue as successfully as it has started and that all other candidates will have as great an experience as our first candidate did.
COMMUNICATION WITH THE BODY
Muscles in the bodyâ„¢s limbs contain embedded sensors called muscle spindles that measure the length and speed of the muscles as they stretch and contract as you move other sensors in the skin respond to stretching and pressure. Even if paralysis or disease damages the part of the brain that process movement, the brain still makes neural signals. Theyâ„¢re just not being sent to the arms, hands and legs.
A technique called neuro feedback uses connecting sensors on the scalp to translate brain waves in to information a person can learn from. The sensors register different frequencies of the signals produced in the brain. These changes in brain wave patterns indicate whether some one is concentrating or suppressing his impulses or whether he is relaxed or tense.
FEATURES
Brain Gate is a brain implant system developed by the bio-tech company Cyber kinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the department of Neuroscience at Brown University. The device was designed to help those who have lost control of their limbs, or other bodily functions, such as patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spinal cord injury. The computer chip, which is implanted into the brain, monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user into computer commands.
Currently the chip uses 100 hair-thin electrodes that sense the electromagnetic signature of neurons firing in specific areas of the brain, for example, the area that controls arm movement. The activity is translated into electrically charged signals and are then sent and decoded using a program, which can move either a robotic arm or a computer cursor. According to the Cyberkineticsâ„¢ website, three patients have been implanted with the Brain Gate system. The company has confirmed that one patient (Matt Nagle) has a spinal cord injury, whilst another has advanced ALS.
ADVANTAGES
The brain crate system is based on cyber kinetics platform technology to sense, transmit analyze and apply the language of neurons.
The Brain Gate Neural Interface System is being designed to one day allow the interface with a computer and / or even faster than, what is possible with the hands of a person. The Brain Gate System may offer substantial improvement over existing technologies.
Currently available assistive device has significant limitations for both the pers and caregiver. For example, even simple switches must be adjusted frequent that can be time consuming. In addition, these devices are often obtrusive and user from being able to simultaneously use the device and at the same time contact or carry on conversations with others.
Potential advantages of the Brain Gate System over other muscle driven or brain computer interface approaches include : its potential to interface with a compute weeks or months of training; its potential to be used in an interactive environment userâ„¢s ability to operate the device is not affected by their speech, eye movement noise; and the ability to provide significantly more usefulness and utility than other approaches by connecting directly to the part of the brain that controls hand gestures.
DISADVANTAGES
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved the Brain Gate Non Interface System for general use.
The Brain Gate System is an investigational device in the United States, and is status (Investigational Device Exemption). In the United States, this investigate can only be used in pre-marketing clinical trials approved by the FDA.
CONCLUSION
Cyber kinetics is further developing the Brain Gate system to potentially provide I movement to people with severe motor disabilities. The goal of this development would be to allow these individuals to one day use their own arms and hands are movement developments are currently at the research stage and are not available with the existing Brain Gate System. In addition Cyber kinetics is developing product for robotic control, such as a thought-controlled wheel chair.
In the future, the Brain Gate System could be used by those individuals whose in severe. Next generation products may be able to provide an individual with the control device that allow breathing, bladder and bowel movements.
* * *

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22-05-2010, 11:35 PM
Post: #6
RE: braingate technology

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Introduction

BrainGate is a brain implant system developed by the bio-tech company Cyberkinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University. The device was designed to help those who have lost control of their limbs, or other bodily functions, such as patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spinal cord injury. The computer chip, which is implanted into the brain, monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user into computer commands. Cyberkinetics describes that "such applications may include novel communications interfaces for motor impaired patients, as well as the monitoring and treatment of certain diseases which manifest themselves in patterns of brain activity, such as epilepsy and depression."
Currently the chip uses 100 hair-thin electrodes that sense the electro-magnetic signature of neurons firing in specific areas of the brain, for example, the area that controls arm movement. The activities are translated into electrically charged signals and are then sent and decoded using a program, which can move either a robotic arm or a computer cursor. According to the Cyberkinetics' website, three patients have been implanted with the BrainGate system. The company has confirmed that one patient (Matt Nagle) has a spinal cord injury, while another has advanced ALS.
The remarkable breakthrough offers hope that people who are paralyzed will one day be able to independently operate artificial limbs, computers or wheelchairs. The implant, called BrainGate, allowed Matthew Nagle, a 25-year-old Massachusetts man who has been paralyzed from the neck down since 2001, to control a cursor on a screen and to open and close the hand on a prosthetic limb just by thinking about the relevant actions.
The movements were his first since he was stabbed five years ago. The attack severed his spinal cord. "The results hold out the promise to one day be able to activate limb muscles with these brain signals, effectively restoring brain to muscle control via a physical nervous system," said John Donoghue, director of the brain science program at Brown University, Rhode Island, and chief scientific officer of Cyberkinetics, the company behind the brain implant. Professor Donoghue's work is published today in Nature. He describes how, after a few minutes spent calibrating the implant, Mr. Nagle could read emails and play the computer game Pong. He was able to draw circular shapes using a paint program and could also change channel and turn up the volume on a television, even while talking to people around him. After several months, he could also operate simple robotic devices such as a prosthetic hand, which he used to grasp and move objects.
In addition to real-time analysis of neuron patterns to relay movement, the Braingate array is also capable of recording electrical data for later analysis. A potential use of this feature would be for a neurologist to study seizure patterns in a patient with epilepsy. The 'BrainGate' device can provide paralyzed or motor-impaired patients a mode of communication through the translation of thought into direct computer control. The technology driving this breakthrough in the Brain-Machine-Interface field has a myriad of potential applications, including the development of human augmentation for military and commercial purposes.
The Braingate Neural Interface device consists of a tiny chip containing 100 microscopic electrodes that is surgically implanted in the brain's motor cortex. The whole apparatus is the size of a baby aspirin. The chip can read signals from the motor cortex, send that information to a computer via connected wires, and translate it to control the movement of a computer cursor or a robotic arm. According to Dr. John Donaghue of Cyberkinetics, there is practically no training required to use BrainGate because the signals read by a chip implanted, for example, in the area of the motor cortex for arm movement, are the same signals that would be sent to the real arm. A user with an implanted chip can immediately begin to move a cursor with thought alone. However, because movement carries a variety of information such as velocity, direction, and acceleration, there are many neurons involved in controlling that movement. BrainGate is only reading signals from an extremely small sample of those cells and, therefore, only receiving a fraction of the instructions. Without all of the information, the initial control of a robotic hand may not be as smooth as the natural movement of a real hand. But with practice, the user can refine those movements using signals from only that sample of cells.
The BrainGate technology platform was designed to take advantage of the fact that many patients with motor impairment have an intact brain that can produce movement commands. This may allow the BrainGate system to create an output signal directly from the brain, bypassing the route through the nerves to the muscles that cannot be used in paralyzed people.
Braingate is currently recruiting patients with a range of neuromuscular and neurodegenerative conditions for pilot clinical trials in the United States. Cyberkinetics hopes to refine the BrainGate in the next two years to develop a wireless device that is completely implantable and doesn't have a plug, making it safer and less visible. And once the basics of brain mapping are worked out there is potential for a wide variety of further applications, Surgenor explains."If you could detect or predict the onset of epilepsy, which would be a huge therapeutic application for people who have seizures, which leads to the idea of a 'pacemaker for the brain'. So eventually people may have this technology in their brains and if something starts to go wrong it will take a therapeutic action. That could be available by 2007 to 2008."

HISTORY

After 10 years of study and research, Cyberkinetics, a biotech company in Foxboro, Massachusetts, has developed BrainGate in 2003. Dr. John Donaghue, director of the brain science program at Brown University, Rhode Island, and chief scientific officer of Cyberkinetics, the company behind the brain implant, lead the team to research and develop this brain implant system.
BRAINGATE NEURAL INTERFACE SYSTEM

The BrainGate Neural Interface System is currently the subject of a pilot clinical trial being conducted under an Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) from the FDA. The system is designed to restore functionality for a limited, immobile group of severely motor-impaired individuals. It is expected that people using the BrainGate System will employ a personal computer as the gateway to a range of self-directed activities. These activities may extend beyond typical computer functions (e.g., communication) to include the control of objects in the environment such as a telephone, a television and lights.
The BrainGate System is based on Cyberkinetics' platform technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons. The System consists of a sensor that is implanted on the motor cortex of the brain and a device that analyzes brain signals. The principle of operation behind the BrainGate System is that with intact brain function, brain signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms, hands and legs. The signals are interpreted and translated into cursor movements, offering the user an alternate "BrainGate pathway" to control a computer with thought, just as individuals who have the ability to move their hands use a mouse.
Cyberkinetics is further developing the BrainGate System to potentially provide limb movement to people with severe motor disabilities. The goal of this development program would be to allow these individuals to one day use their own arms and hands again. Limb movement developments are currently at the research stage and are not available for use with the existing BrainGate System. In addition Cyberkinetics is developing products to allow for robotic control, such as a thought-controlled wheelchair.
In the future, the BrainGate System could be used by those individuals whose injuries are less severe. Next generation products may be able to provide an individual with the ability to control devices that allow breathing, bladder and bowel movements.

ABOUT THE BRAINGATE DEVICE

The braingate pilot device consists of a Sensor of the size of a contact lens, a cable and pedestal, which connects the chip to the computer, a cart which consists the signal processing unit .
The BrainGate Neural Interface Device is a proprietary brain-computer interface that consists of an internal neural signal sensor and external processors that convert neural signals into an output signal under the users own control. The sensor consists of a tiny chip smaller than a baby aspirin, with one hundred electrode sensors each thinner than a hair that detect brain cell electrical activity.
The chip is implanted on the surface of the brain in the motor cortex area that controls movement. In the pilot version of the device, a cable connects the sensor to an external signal processor in a cart that contains computers. The computers translate brain activity and create the communication output using custom decoding software. Importantly, the entire BrainGate system was specifically designed for clinical use in humans and thus, its manufacture, assembly and testing are intended to meet human safety requirements. Five quadriplegics patients in all are enrolled in the pilot study, which was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Existing technology stimulates muscle groups that can make an arm move. The problem Surgenor and his team faced was in creating an input or control signal. With the right control signal they found they could stimulate the right muscle groups to make arm movement.
PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY

Neurons are cells that use a language of electrical impulses to communicate messages from the brain to the rest of the body. At Cyberkinetics, we have the technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons. We are developing products to restore function, as well as to monitor, detect, and respond to a variety of neurological diseases and disorders.
Cyberkinetics offers a systems approach with a core technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons in both short and long-term settings. Our platform technology is based on the results of several years of research and development at premier academic institutions such as Brown University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Emory University, and the University of Utah.

SENSE

Cyberkinetics' unique technology is able to simultaneously sense the electrical activity of many individual neurons. Our sensor consists of a silicon array about the size of a baby aspirin that contains one hundred electrodes, each thinner than a human hair. The array is implanted on the surface of the brain. In the BrainGate

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07-10-2010, 09:58 AM
Post: #7
RE: braingate technology
BRAIN GATE


What is Brain Gate/Brain Machine Interface/Brain Computer Interface???

Brain gate is an electrode chip which can be implemented in the brain. When it is implemented in brain, the electrical signal exchanged by neurons within the brain. Those signals are sent to the brain and it executes body movement. All the signaling process is handled by special software. The signal sends to the computer and then the computer is controlled by patient.
Whenever a man forgotten about his past due to certain accidental matter or he had lost his part of his body, at that time this electrode chip can be implemented on his brain and active the man as well.



Objective of Brain Gate !!!!

The goal of the Brain Gate program is to develop a fast and reliable connection between the brain of a severely disabled person and a personal computer . The ‘Brain Gate’ device can provide paralysed or motor-impaired patients a mode of communication through the translation of thought into direct computer control.

Types of Brain Computer Interface(BCI):


One way BCI
Computers either accept commands from the brain or send signals to it

Two way BCI
Allow brains and external devices to exchange information in both directions.



Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh had demonstarted on a monkey that can feed itself with a robotic arm simply by using signals from its brain.


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23-12-2010, 03:00 PM
Post: #8
RE: braingate technology

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BRAINGATE SYSTEM
A Brain implant system developed by cyberkinetics in the year 2003
Designed to help those who have lost control of their limbs and other bodily functions due to ALS or spinal cord injury.
Computer chip implanted in the brain monitors brain activity and converts the intention of the user into computer commands

DESCRIPTION
Neurons are cells that use a language of electrical impulses to communicate messages from the brain to the rest of the body.
BrainGate can sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons.
Sensor consists of a silicon array about the size of a baby aspirin that contains one hundred electrodes, each thinner than a human hair.
Brief idea about function of brain and neurons
Brain is the centre of nervous system which is present in the head, protected by the skull.
Brain controls the whole body action and reaction.
Neurons are the responsive cells in the nervous system that processes and transmits information by electrochemical signals.
There are 100 billions neurons available in human body.

NEURONS AND NERVOUS SYSTEM
Neurons are the constituents of nervous system.
Nervous system is linked with brain and controlled by it.
The commands given by the brain are carried by the neurons to different parts.

How does the brain control motor function?
The brain is "hardwired" with connections, which are made by billions of neurons that make electricity whenever they are stimulated.
The electrical patterns are called brain waves. Neurons act like the wires and gates in a computer, gathering and transmitting electrochemical signals over distances as far as several feet.

The brain encodes information not by relying on single neurons, but by spreading it across large populations of neurons, and by rapidly adapting to new circumstances.

Motor neurons carry signals from the central nervous system to the muscles, skin and glands of the body, while sensory neurons carry signals from those outer parts of the body to the central nervous system.

Receptors sense things like chemicals, light, and sound and encode this information into electrochemical signals transmitted by the sensory neurons.


Interneurons tie everything together by connecting the various neurons within the brain and spinal cord. The part of the brain that controls motor skills is located at the ear of the frontal lobe.
Muscles in the body's limbs contain embedded sensors called muscle spindles that measure the length and speed of the muscles as they stretch and contract as you move

Other sensors in the skin respond to stretching and pressure. Even if paralysis or disease damages the part of the brain that processes movement, the brain still makes neural signals. They're just not being sent to the arms, hands and legs.
A technique called neurofeedback uses connecting sensors on the scalp to translate brain waves into information a person can learn from.


The sensors register different frequencies of the signals produced in the brain. These changes in brain wave patterns indicate whether someone is concentrating or suppressing his impulses, or whether he is relaxed or tense.

BrainGate chip
The chip uses 100 hair-thin electrodes that 'hear' neurons firing in specific areas of the brain, for example, the area that controls arm movement.
The activity is translated into electrically charged signals and are then sent and decoded using a program, which can move either a robotic arm or a computer cursor
Braingate chip
Monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user into computer commands.
This can be used to control a robot arm or a cursor on a screen.
18-01-2011, 07:53 PM
Post: #9
RE: braingate technology
please provide full documentation about braingate system
19-01-2011, 10:39 AM
Post: #10
RE: braingate technology
seminar presentation has posted the documentation. please go through the below page too..

http://www.seminarprojectsThread-braingate-technology
01-03-2011, 11:03 AM
Post: #11
RE: braingate technology

.doc  Brain gate system.doc (Size: 344 KB / Downloads: 166)
BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE-BRAIN GATE SYSTEM
ABSTRACT:

The mind-to-movement system that allows a quadriplegic man to control a computer using only his thoughts is a scientific milestone. It was reached, in large part, through the brain gate system. This system has become a boon to the paralyzed. The Brain Gate System is based on Cyber kinetics platform technology to sense,transmit,analyze and apply the language of neurons. The principle of operation behind the Brain Gate System is that with intact brain function, brain signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms, hands and legs.The signals are interpreted and translated into cursor movements, offering the user an alternate Brain Gate pathway to control a computer with thought,just as individuals who have the ability to move their hands use a mouse.
The 'Brain Gate' contains tiny spikes that will extend down about one millimetre into the brain after being implanted beneath the skull,monitoring the activity from a small group of neurons.It will now be possible for a patient with spinal cord injury to produce brain signals that relay the intention of moving the paralyzed limbs,as signals to an implanted sensor,which is then output as electronic impulses. These impulses enable the user to operate mechanical devices with the help of a computer cursor. Matthew Nagle,a 25-year-old Massachusetts man with a severe spinal cord injury,has been paralyzed from the neck down since 2001.After taking part in a clinical trial of this system,he has opened e-mail,switched TV channels,turned on lights.He even moved a robotic hand from his wheelchair. This marks the first time that neural movement signals have been recorded and decoded in a human with spinal cord injury.The system is also the first to allow a human to control his surrounding environment using his mind.
How does the brain control motor function?
The brain is "hardwired" with connections, which are made by billions of neurons that make electricity whenever they are stimulated. The electrical patterns are called brain waves. Neurons act like the wires and gates in a computer, gathering and transmitting electrochemical signals over distances as far as several feet. The brain encodes information not by relying on single neurons, but by spreading it across large populations of neurons, and by rapidly adapting to new circumstances.
Motor neurons carry signals from the central nervous system to the muscles, skin and glands of the body, while sensory neurons carry signals from those outer parts of the body to the central nervous system. Receptors sense things like chemicals, light, and sound and encode this information into electrochemical signals transmitted by the sensory neurons. And interneurons tie everything together by connecting the various neurons within the brain and spinal cord. The part of the brain that controls motor skills is located at the ear of the frontal lobe.
How does this communication happen? Muscles in the body's limbs contain embedded sensors called muscle spindles that measure the length and speed of the muscles as they stretch and contract as you move. Other sensors in the skin respond to stretching and pressure. Even if paralysis or disease damages the part of the brain that processes movement, the brain still makes neural signals. They're just not being sent to the arms, hands and legs.
 A technique called neurofeedback uses connecting sensors on the scalp to translate brain waves into information a person can learn from. The sensors register different frequencies of the signals produced in the brain. These changes in brain wave patterns indicate whether someone is concentrating or suppressing his impulses, or whether he is relaxed or tense.
NEUROPROSTHETIC DEVICE:
A neuroprosthetic device known as Braingate converts brain activity into computer commands. A sensor is implanted on the brain, and electrodes are hooked up to wires that travel to a pedestal on the scalp. From there, a fiber optic cable carries the brain activity data to a nearby computer.
PRINCIPLE:
"The principle of operation of the BrainGate Neural Interface System is that with intact brain function, neural signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms, hands and legs. These signals are interpreted by the System and a cursor is shown to the user on a computer screen that provides an alternate "BrainGate pathway". The user can use that cursor to control the computer, just as a mouse is used."
25-03-2011, 02:33 PM
Post: #12
RE: braingate technology
BRAINGATE
ABSTRACT FOR BRAINGATE:

BrainGate is a brain implant system developed by the bio-tech company Cyberkinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University.The system is to help those who have lost control of their limbs, or other bodily functions, such as patients with spinal cord injury to operate various gadgets such as TV, computer ,lights, fan etc.. During paralysis the brain generates the signals but these signals do not reach the intended muscles. Hence the muscles do not react and thus no movement is observed. A solution to this problem can be a direct interaction between the brain and appliance. Thus no muscle movement is required to get the work done. The brain can directly do it. The user must only be equipped with this braingate system.
The braingate is the culmination of 10 years of research in the laboratory of Dr.John Donoghue, who is the chair man of the Neuroscience Department at Brown University and chief scientific officer for cyberkinetics. He studied the functioning of braingate in monkeys and proved that they were able to control a curser on a computer monitor with their thoughts.
They have not only demonstrated in preclinical studies that braingate can remain safely implanted in the (monkey) brain for at least two years, but have shown that it can safely be removed as well.
26-04-2011, 04:14 PM
Post: #13
RE: braingate technology

.ppsx  braingate ppt.ppsx (Size: 12.36 MB / Downloads: 262)

Introductions:

The BrainGate™ Neural Interface System is an investigational medical device that is being developed to improve the quality of life for physically disabled people by allowing them to quickly and reliably control a wide range of devices by thought, including computers, environmental controls, robotics and medical devices. In the future, the BrainGate System may enable those with severe motor disabilities to use their own arms and hands again. Cyberkinetics is also developing products to allow for robotic control, such as a thought-controlled wheelchair. Next generation products may be able to provide an individual with the ability to control devices that allow 2005 breathing, bladder and bowel movements.

Whats Bran Gate?


“NEURO MOTOR PROSTHESIS”

AN INVESTIGATIONAL DEVICE COMPRISED OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SENSORS .

THE INTERNAL SENSORS DETECTS THE BRAIN SIGNAL ACTIVITY AND EXTERNAL SENSORS DIGITISES THE SIGNAL TO FEED INTO THE COMPUTER.

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
13-09-2011, 06:40 PM
Post: #14
RE: braingate technology
thank u for sending braingate pdf
16-02-2012, 05:00 PM
Post: #15
RE: braingate technology

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09-05-2012, 11:26 AM
Post: #16
RE: braingate technology
braingate technology


.ppt  Brain gate Technology.ppt (Size: 4.92 MB / Downloads: 71)


Introduction

“The goal of the BrainGate program is to develop a fast, reliable and unobtrusive connection between the brain of a severely disabled person and a personal computer“
It is expected that people using the BrainGate System will employ a personal computer as the gateway to a range of self-directed activities
These to include the control of objects in the environment such as a telephone, a television and lights

Origin

BrainGate is a brain implant system developed by the bio-tech company Cyberkinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University
The BrainGate is the culmination of 10 years of research in the laboratory of Dr. John Donoghue In conjunction with RI Hospital neurosurgeon, Dr. Gerhard Friehs
These researchers co-founded Cyberkinetics, so that the BrainGate could be further evaluated in human clinical studies


Brain Gate

The BrainGate Neural Interface Device is a proprietary brain-computer interface that consists of an internal neural signal sensor and external processors that convert neural signals into an output signal under the users own control
The technology includes
an electrode array
computer chip
According to the Cyberkinetics' website, three patients have been implanted with the BrainGate system
The Braingate array is also capable of recording electrical data for later analysis


BrainGate CHIP:



The computer chip, which is implanted into the brain, monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user into computer commands.

Currently the chip uses 100 hair-thin electrodes that sense the electro-magnetic signature of neurons firing in specific areas of the brain

It is a 4 by 4 mm chip
29-05-2012, 03:04 PM
Post: #17
RE: braingate technology
Brain Gate Hardware


.ppt  BrainGateHardware.ppt (Size: 414.5 KB / Downloads: 41)

Definition

BrainGate Neural Interface Device- a ‘brain-computer’ interface that uses internal neural signal sensor and external processors to convert neural signals into an output signal under the users own control.

What It Is

The sensor consists of a tiny chip (smaller than a baby aspirin) with one hundred electrode sensors each thinner than a hair that detect brain cell electrical activity.

How it Works

BrainGate uses a sensor that is implanted onto the motor cortex of the brain. The device analyzes brain signals then interprets and translated them into cursor movements.
04-10-2012, 11:04 AM
Post: #18
RE: braingate technology
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17-12-2012, 02:31 PM
Post: #19
RE: braingate technology
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06-02-2014, 03:25 AM
Post: #20
RE: braingate technology
please let me download brain gate system seminar report
01-03-2014, 11:11 PM
Post: #21
RE: braingate technology
pls send brain gate system full documentation to anilnardas[at]gmail.com
02-03-2014, 11:49 AM
Post: #22
RE: braingate technology
Sir plz send me brain gate system documentation to anilnardas[at]gmail.com

Si plz send me brain gate system documentation to anilnardas[at]gmail.com
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