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16-03-2010, 09:56 PM
Post: #1
blue brain project full report

.ppt  BLUE BRAIN.ppt (Size: 141.5 KB / Downloads: 2680)
BLUE BRAIN
Prepared by,
D. Sruthi Reddy,
08AT1A0521,
2nd CSE

Contents:

1 INTRODUCTION
2 WHAT IS BLUE BRAIN
3 WHAT IS VIRTUAL BRAIN
4 FUNCTION OF NATURAL BRAIN
5 BRAIN SIMULATION
CURRENT RESEARCH WORK
7 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQIREMENT
8 ADVANTAGES
9 DISADVANTAGE
10 CONCLUSION


INTRODUCTION

Human Brain”The most valuable creation of GOD
The intelligence of a person is lost after his/her death
Is there any solution for this
WHAT IS BLUE BRAIN
BLUE BRAIN”The world™s first virtual brain
Itâ„¢s being developed by IBM
Within 30 years we will be able to scan ourselves into computers

WHAT IS VIRTUAL BRAIN

A machine that functions as our Brain
We can just call it as Artificial Brain
Possible by using Super Computers
WHY DO WE NEED VIRTUAL BRAIN
To upload the contents of human brain
To keep a personâ„¢s intelligence/skill alive
To remember the things without any effort

FUNCTIONING OF HUMAN BRAIN

Sensory Input :-
Receiving input such as sound ,image, etc
through sensory cell .
Interpretation.
Interpretation of the received input by the brain by defining states of neurons in the brain.
Motor Output.
Receiving of electric responses from the brain to perform any action .

BRAIN SIMUALATION Natural Brain vs Artificial Brain
INPUT
Through the natural neurons

INTERPRETATION

By different states of the neurons in the brain


INPUT
Through the silicon chip or artificial neurons
INTERPRETATION
By a set of bits in the set of register

OUTPUT
Through the natural neurons.
PROCESSING
Through arithmetic and logical calculations

OUTPUT
Through the silicon chip .
PROCESSING
Through arithmetic and logical calculation and artificial intelligence

MEMORY
Through permanent states of neurons

MEMORY

Through Secondary memory


UPLOADING HUMAN BRAIN

The uploading is possible by the use of small robots known as the nanobots.
These robots are small enough to travel through out our circulatory system.
Nanobots could also carefully scan the structure of our brain, providing a complete readout of the connection.

This information, when entered into a computer, could then continue to function as us. Thus the data stored in the entire brain will be uploaded into the computer.
RESEARCH WORK
IBM developing the Blue brain
IBM, in partnership with scientists at Switzerlandâ„¢s Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanneâ„¢s(EPFL) Brain and Mind Institute will begin simulating the brainâ„¢s biological systems

Software & Hardware Requirement

22.8 TFLOPS peak processing speed.
8,096 CPUs at 700 MHz (downgraded to handle massive parallel processing).
256MB to 512MB memory per processor.
Linux and C++ software.
100 kilowatts power consumption.
very powerful Nanobots to act as the interface between the natural brain and the computer.
ADVANTAGES

Intelligence of a person is not lost even after his death
Things can be remembered easily without much effort
Allowing deaf to hear via nerve simulation
Making decisions without the presence of the person


DISADVANTAGES

We become dependent upon the computer
Others may use technical knowledge against us.
Another fear is found today with respect to human cloning


ANY QUERIES
THANK YOU

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
01-04-2010, 09:24 PM
Post: #2
RE: blue brain project full report
WELCOME TO SEMINAR ON
BLUE BRAIN

Presented BY ASIS KUMAR SAHOO
Semester:7TH
Branch: Computer Science

INTRODUCTION
Human brain, the most valuable creation of
God. The man is called intelligent because of the brain. But we loss the knowledge of a brain when the body is destroyed after the death .
BLUE BRAIN- The name of the worldâ„¢s first virtual brain. That means a machine that
can function as human brain.
Is it really possible to create a human brain?
What is BLUE BRAIN
YES", The IBM is now developing a virtual brain known as the BLUE BRAIN.
It would be the worlds first virtual brain.
Within 30 years, we will be able to scan ourselves into the computers.
WHAT IS VIRTUAL BRAIN?
A machine that can function as brain .
It can take decision.
It can think.
It can response.
It can keep things in memory.
WHY WE NEED VIRTUAL BRAIN
To upload contents of the natural brain into it .
To keep the intelligence , knowledge and skill of any person for ever .
To remember things without any effort .
FUNCTIONING OF BRAIN

Sensory Input :-
Receiving input such as sound ,image, etc
through sensory cell .
Interpretation.
Interpretation of the received input by the brain by defining states of neurons in the brain.
Motor Output.
Receiving of electric responses from the brain to
perform any action .
BRAIN SIMULATION:-
NATURAL BRAIN VS SIMULATED BRAIN
INPUT
Through the natural neurons
INPUT
Through the silicon chip or artificial neurons
INTERPRETATION
By a set of bits in the set of register
INTERPRETATION
By different states of the neurons in the brain
OUTPUT
Through the natural neurons.
OUTPUT
Through the silicon chip .
PROCESSING
Through arithmetic and logical calculations
PROCESSING
Through arithmetic and logical calculation and artificial intelligence
MEMORY
Through permanent states of neurons
MEMORY
Through Secondary memory
Now there is no question how the virtual brain will work. But the question is how the human brain will
be up loaded into it. This is also possible due to the first growing technology.
UPLOADING HUMAN BRAIN
The uploading is possible by the use of small robots known as the nanobots.
These robots are small enough to travel through out our circulatory system.
Traveling into the spine and brain, they will be able to monitor the activity and structure of our central nervous system.
They will be able to provide an interface with computer that is as close as our mind can be while we still reside in our biological form .
Nanobots could also carefully scan the structure of our brain, providing a complete readout of the connection.
This information, when entered into a computer, could then continue to function as us.
Thus the data stored in the entire brain will be uploaded into the computer.
RESEARCH WORK
IBM developing the Blue brain
IBM, in partnership with scientists at Switzerlandâ„¢s Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanneâ„¢s(EPFL) Brain and Mind Institute will begin simulating the brainâ„¢s biological systems.
HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIRMENT
1.A Super computer
2.Menory with a very large storing capacity
3.Processor with a very high processing power.
4.A very wide network.
5.A program to convert the electric impulses from the brain to input signal, which is to be received by the computer and vice versa.
6.very powerful Nanobots to act as the interface between the natural brain and the computer.
CONCLUSION:-

We will be able to transfer ourselves into computers at some point.
It will bring both benefits and harm to human society .

CONTENTS:-
1# INTRODUCTION
2@ WHAT IS BLUE BRAIN
3$ WHAT IS VIRTUAL BRAIN
4% FUNCTION OF NATURAL BRAIN
5^^ BRAIN SIMULATION
6!!! CURRENT RESEARCH WORK
7~~ ADVANTAGES
8*** DISADVANTAGE
9<> HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQIREMENT
10\\ CONCLUSION


Attached File(s)
.ppt  Blue Brain.ppt (Size: 490.5 KB / Downloads: 986)

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10-07-2010, 10:51 PM
Post: #3
RE: blue brain project full report
full report on blue brain
11-07-2010, 10:47 PM
Post: #4
RE: blue brain project full report
Hey nice report i understood almost every thing about blue brain with just one PPT...Thank you for that
25-07-2010, 09:51 AM
Post: #5
RE: blue brain project full report
plz forwad me the full report
27-07-2010, 10:30 AM
Post: #6
RE: blue brain project full report
hi, Good Morning...

please forward the full seminor report on BLUR BRAIN.

it seems good topic for seminar.
please forward full information on BLUE BRAIN
29-07-2010, 06:33 PM
Post: #7
RE: blue brain project full report
For more info on blue brain, visit these links:
en.wikipediawiki/Blue_Brain_Project
bluebrain.epfl.ch/

more ppt are available in these links:
http://www.scribddoc/27653282/Blue-Brain

.pptx  blue brain.pptx (Size: 1.4 MB / Downloads: 466)

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
09-10-2010, 04:49 PM
Post: #8
RE: blue brain project full report

.doc  seminar+of+blue+brain.doc (Size: 98.5 KB / Downloads: 536)
INTRODUCTION

Human brain, the most valuable creation of God. The man is called intelligent because of the brain .Today we are developed because we can think, that other animals can not do .But we loss the knowledge of a brain when the body is destroyed after the death of man. That knowledge might have been used for the development of the human society. What happen if we create a brain and up load the contents of natural brain into it.

“Blue brain” –The name of the world’s first virtual brain. That means a machine that can function as human brain. Today scientists are in research to create an artificial brain that can think, response, take decision, and keep anything in memory. The main aim is to upload human brain into machine. So that man can think, take decision without any effort. After the death of the body, the virtual brain will act as the man .So, even after the death of a person we will not loose the knowledge, intelligence, personalities, feelings and memories of that man that can be used for the development of the human society. No one has ever understood the complexity of human brain. It is complex than any circuitry in the world. So, question may arise “Is it really possible to create a human brain?” The answer is “Yes”. Because what ever man has created today always he has followed the nature. When man does not have a device called computer, it was a big question for all .But today it is possible due to the technology. Technology is growing faster than every thing. IBM is now in research to create a virtual brain. It is called “Blue brain “.If possible, this would be the first virtual brain of the world.

What is Blue brain?
The IBM is now developing a virtual brain known as the Blue brain. It would be the world’s first virtual brain. With in 30 years, we will be able to scan ourselves into the computers. Is this the beginning of eternal life?


What is Virtual Brain?
We can say Virtual brain is an artificial brain, which does not actually the natural brain, but can act as the brain .It can think like brain, take decisions based on the past experience, and response as the natural brain can. It is possible by using a super computer, with a huge amount of storage capacity, processing power and an interface between the human brain and this artificial one .Through this interface the data stored in the natural brain can be up loaded into the computer .So the brain and the knowledge, intelligence of anyone can be kept and used for ever, even after the death of the person.





Why we need virtual brain?
Today we are developed because of our intelligence. Intelligence is the inborn quality that can not be created .Some people have this quality ,so that they can think up to such an extent where other can not reach .Human society is always need of such intelligence and such an intelligent brain to have with. But the intelligence is lost along with the body after the death. The virtual brain is a solution to it. The brain and intelligence will alive even after the death.
We often face difficulties in remembering things such as people's names, their birthdays, and the spellings of words, proper grammar, important dates, history facts, and etcetera. In the busy life every one want to be relaxed .Can not we use any machine to assist for all these? Virtual brain may be the solution to it. What if we upload ourselves into computer, we were simply aware of a computer, or maybe, what if we lived in a computer as a program?
How it is possible?
First, it is helpful to describe the basic manners in which a person may be uploaded into a computer. Raymond Kurzweil recently provided an interesting paper on this topic. In it, he describes both invasive and noninvasive techniques. The most promising is the use of very small robots, or nanobots. These robots will be small enough to travel throughout our circulatory systems. Traveling into the spine and brain, they will be able to monitor the activity and structure of our central nervous system. They will be able to provide an interface with computers that is as close as our mind can be while we still reside in our biological form. Nanobots could also carefully scan the structure of our brain, providing a complete readout of the connections between each neuron. They would also record the current state of the brain. This information, when entered into a computer, could then continue to function as us. All that is required is a computer with large enough storage space and processing power. Is the pattern and state of neuron connections in our brain truly all that makes up our conscious selves? Many people believe firmly those we posses a soul, while some very technical people believe that quantum forces contribute to our awareness. But we have to now think technically. Note, however, that we need not know how the brain actually functions, to transfer it to a computer. We need only know the media and contents. The actual mystery of how we achieved consciousness in the first place, or how we maintain it, is a separate discussion.
13-10-2010, 12:30 PM
Post: #9
RE: blue brain project full report

.ppt  BLUE BRAIN.ppt (Size: 141.5 KB / Downloads: 283)
BLUE BRAIN


Prepared by,
D. Sruthi Reddy,
08AT1A0521,
2nd CSE

Contents:

INTRODUCTION
2 WHAT IS BLUE BRAIN
3 WHAT IS VIRTUAL BRAIN
4 FUNCTION OF NATURAL BRAIN
5 BRAIN SIMULATION
CURRENT RESEARCH WORK
7 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQIREMENT
8 ADVANTAGES
9 DISADVANTAGE
10 CONCLUSION
15-11-2010, 02:54 PM
Post: #10
RE: blue brain project full report
go through the below threads for more details

http://www.seminarprojectsThread-blue-brain-project-full-report--8972?pid=27103#pid27103
http://www.seminarprojectsThread-full-report-blue-brain?pid=29720#pid29720
go through the below threads for more details

http://www.seminarprojectsThread-blue-brain-project-full-report--8972
http://www.seminarprojectsThread-full-report-blue-brain?pid=29720#pid29720
22-11-2010, 11:02 PM
Post: #11
RE: blue brain project full report
hey please forward to full abstarct of blue brain to my mail surendracse2[at]gmail.com
23-11-2010, 09:48 AM
Post: #12
RE: blue brain project full report
hi
the above threads containing lots of information. you please download from there.
19-02-2011, 09:23 PM
Post: #13
RE: blue brain project full report
full report of blue brain
21-02-2011, 06:16 PM
Post: #14
RE: blue brain project full report
:[font=Courier][/font]
28-02-2011, 09:20 PM
Post: #15
RE: blue brain project full report
PLEASE SEND ME FULL REPORT ON BLUE BRAIN............................................
03-03-2011, 10:55 AM
Post: #16
RE: blue brain project full report
PRESENTED BY:-
JAGANNATH PRASAD NAYAK


.pptx  -My-Blue-brain-Ppt(JAGANNATH).pptx (Size: 2.54 MB / Downloads: 163)
 Human brain, the most valuable creation of
God. The man is called intelligent because of the brain. But we loss the knowledge of a brain when the body is destroyed after the death .

 “BLUE BRAIN”- The name of the world’s first virtual brain. That means a machine that
can function as human brain.
 Is it really possible to create a human brain?
What is BLUE BRAIN
 “YES", The IBM is now developing a virtual brain known as the BLUE BRAIN.
 It would be the worlds first virtual brain.
Within 30 years, we will be able to scan ourselves into the computers.
WHAT IS VIRTUAL BRAIN?
 A machine that can function as brain
 It can take decision.
 It can think.
 It can response.
 It can keep things in memory.
WHY WE NEED VIRTUAL BRAIN
 To upload contents of the natural brain into it .
 To keep the intelligence , knowledge and skill of any person for ever .
 To remember things without any effort .
FUNCTIONING OF NATURAL BRAIN
Sensory Input :-

Receiving input such as sound ,image, etc
through sensory cell .
 Interpretation:-

Interpretation of the received input by the brain by
defining states of neurons in the brain.
Motor Output:-

Receiving of electric responses from the brain to
perform any action .
BRAIN SIMULATION
 NATURAL BRAIN VS SIMULATED BRAIN

INPUT
Through the natural neurons
INTERPRETATION
By different states of the neurons in the brain.
INPUT
Through the silicon chip or artificial neurons
INTERPRETATION
By a set of bits in the set of register
OUTPUT
Through the natural neurons.
PROCESSING
Through arithmetic and logical calculations
MEMORY
Through permanent states of neurons
OUTPUT
Through the silicon chip.
PROCESSING
Through arithmetic and logical calculation and artificial intelligence
MEMORY
Through Secondary memory
 IBM developing the “Blue brain” .
 IBM, in partnership with scientists at Switzerland’s Ecole Polytechnique Federal De Lausanne’s(EPFL) Brain and Mind Institute will begin simulating the brain’s biological systems.
 A very good example of utilization of blue brain is the case "short term memory".
 In some movies we might have noticed that a person might be having short term memories.
 A another situation is that when a person gets older, then he starts forgetting or takes a bit more time to recognize to a person.
 For the above reason we need a blue brain. It is a simple chip that can be installed into the human brain for which the short term memory and volatile memory at the old age can be avoided.
 A Super computer.
 Memory with a very large storing capacity.
 Processor with a very high processing power.
 A very wide network.
 A program to convert the electric impulses from the brain to input signal, which is to be received by the computer and vice versa.
 very powerful Nanobots to act as the interface between the natural brain and the computer.
 Nanobots could also carefully scan the structure of our brain, providing a complete readout of the connection.
 This information, when entered into a computer, could then continue to function as us.
 Thus the data stored in the entire brain will be uploaded into the computer.
 The project will search for insights into how human beings think and remember.
 Scientists think that blue brain could also help to cure the Parkinson's disease.
 The brain circuitry is in a complex state of flux, the brain rewiring itself every moment of its existence. If the scientists can crack open the secret of how and why the brain does it, the knowledge could lead to new breed of supercomputers.
DISADVANTAGES
 We become dependent upon the computer .
 Others may use technical knowledge against us.
 Another fear is found with respect to human cloning.
 A very costly procedure of regaining the my back.
CONCLUSION
 We will be able to transfer ourselves into computers at some point.
 It will bring both benefits and harm to human society .
 Eventually aim of applying terrific computer power to the simulation of an entire brain.
 Very soon this technology will be highly accepted whole over the world.
03-03-2011, 12:46 PM
Post: #17
RE: blue brain project full report

.docx  report for blue brain.docx (Size: 2.11 MB / Downloads: 179)
 INTRODUCTION
Some have decided it’s time to just go ahead and create a brain in silico. And to a surprising extent, they’ve done it: Labs around the world are populated with autonomously functioning brains based on what we know so far. These simulations match what happens at the cellular level in the brain when the nerve cells, or neurons, that make up the brain pump ions and produce electrochemical activity that propagates across the synapse from one neuron to another. Robots or avatars activated by these engineered brains are directing movement, perceiving visual objects, and even responding to rewards—exhibiting behaviors associated with our “thinking” brains. Eerily, the most recent simulations show the same oscillating rhythms seen when physicians record human brain
waves using an electroencephalogram (commonly known as an EEG). Computer simulations of the brain already allow experiments impossible to carry out with animals. “As good as modern neuroscience is—and it has been brilliant over the last two decades—we can’t really sample every neuron and every synapse as they are performing a behavior,” notes consciousness researcher Gerald Edelman, MD, PhD, director of the Neurosciences Institute and chair of neurobiology at the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego, California. Researchers are looking to develop even more efficient simulated brains to help produce computers that can think while at the same time accelerating neuroscience. Ultimately brain simulations promise the ability to study the effect of drugs and disease and aid in the design of new therapeutic strategies.
 What is BLUE BRAIN
“YES", The IBM is now developing a virtual brain known as the BLUE BRAIN.
It would be the worlds first virtual brain.
Within 30 years, we will be able to scan ourselves into the computers
Alan Turing (1912–1954) started off by wanting to “build the brain” and ended up with a computer. In the 60 years that have followed, computation speed has gone from 1 floating point operation per second (FLOPS) to over 250 trillion — by far the largest man-made growth rate of any kind in the ~10,000 years of human civilization. This is a mere blink of an eye, a single generation, in the 5 million years of human evolution and billions of years of organic life. What will the future hold — in the next 10 years, 100 years, and 1,000 years? These immense calculation speeds have revolutionized science, technology and medicine in numerous and profound ways. In particular, it is becoming increasingly possible to simulate some of nature’s most intimate processes with exquisite accuracy, from atomic reactions to the folding of a single protein, gene networks, molecular interactions, the opening of an ion channel on the surface of a cell, and the detailed activity of a single neuron. As calculation speeds approach and go beyond the petaFLOPS range, it is becoming feasible to make the next series of quantum leaps to simulating networks of neurons, brain regions and, eventually, the whole brain. Turing may,
after all, have provided the means by which to build the brain
 WHAT IS VIRTUAL BRAIN
 A machine that can function as brain
 It can take decision.
 It can think.
 It can response.
 It can keep things in memory.
 Function of natural brain
From a biological perspective, there are quantum leaps in the ‘quality’ of intelligence between different levels of an organism Atoms are differentially combined to produce a spectrum of molecules, which are qualitatively very different from atoms in terms of their properties and the information they contain. After all, molecules cannot be understood by the study of atoms alone. DNA molecules can be strung together in numerous sequences to produce different genes, which collectively produce hundreds of thousands of proteins that are qualitatively different from their building blocks. Different combinations of proteins produce qualitatively different types of cell that can be combined in various ways in the brain to produce distinct brain regions that contain and process qualitatively different types of information. The brain seems to make the next quantum leap in the quality of intelligence, beyond the physical structures to form dynamic electrical ‘molecules’. The ultimate question, therefore, is whether the interaction between neurons drives a series of qualitative leaps in the manner in which information is embodied to represent an organism and its world. As computers approach petaFLOPS speeds, it might now be possible to retrace these elementary steps in the emergence of biological intelligence using a detailed, biologically accurate model of the brain.
 BRAIN SIMULATION
The main limitations for digital computers in the simulation of biological processes are the extreme temporal and spatial resolution demanded by some biological processes, and the limitations of the algorithms that are used to model biological processes. If each atomic collision is simulated, the most powerful supercomputers still take days to simulate a microsecond of protein folding, so it is, of course, not possible to simulate complex biological systems at the atomic scale. However, models at higher levels, such as the molecular or cellular levels, can capture lower-level processes and allow complex large-scale simulations of biological processes.
The Blue Brain Project’s Blue Gene can simulate a NCC of up to 100,000 highly complex neurons at the cellular level (about five times the number of neurons in Aplysia californica), or as many as 100 million simple neurons (about the same number of neurons found in a mouse brain). However, simulating neurons embedded in microcircuits, microcircuits embedded in brain regions, and brain regions embedded in the whole brain as part of the process of understanding the emergence of complex behaviours of animals is an inevitable progression in understanding brain function and dysfunction, and the question is whether whole-brain simulations are at all possible.
Computational power needs to increase about 1-million-fold before we will be able to simulate the human brain, with 100 billion neurons, at the same level of detail as the Blue Column. Algorithmic and simulation efficiency (which ensure that all possible FLOPS are exploited) could reduce this requirement by two to three orders of magnitude. Simulating the NCC could also act as a test-bed to refine algorithms required to simulate brain function, which can be used to produce field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based chips. FPGAs could increase computational speeds by as much as two orders of magnitude. The FPGAs could, in turn, provide the testing ground for the production of specialized NEURON solver application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that could further increase computational speed by another one to two orders of magnitude. It could therefore be possible, in principle, to simulate the human brain even with current technology. The computer industry is facing what is known as a discontinuity, with increasing processor speed leading to unacceptably high power consumption and heat production. This is pushing a qualitatively new transition in the types of processor to be used in future computers. These advances in computing should begin to make genetic- and molecular-level simulations possible.
 CURRENT RESEARCH WORK
On 1 July 2005, the Brain Mind Institute (BMI, at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) and IBM (International Business Machines) launched the Blue Brain Project1. Using the enormous computing power of IBM’s prototype Blue Gene/L supercomputer2 (FIG. 1), the aims of this ambitious initiative are to simulate the brains of mammals with a high level of biological accuracy and, ultimately, to study the steps involved in the emergence of biological intelligence.
24-03-2011, 12:13 AM
Post: #18
RE: blue brain project full report
please send me full report on blue brain at prabhat.sriva[at]gail.com[/size][/font]
26-03-2011, 07:18 PM
Post: #19
RE: blue brain full repert
i want full report on blue brain
02-04-2011, 04:48 PM
Post: #20
RE: blue brain project full report
presented by:
SORUP RANJAN ROUTARAY


.ppt  Blue Brain.ppt (Size: 574 KB / Downloads: 75)
INTRODUCTION
Human brain, the most valuable creation of
God. The man is called intelligent because of the brain. But we loss the knowledge of a brain when the body is destroyed after the death .
“BLUE BRAIN”- The name of the world’s first virtual brain. That means a machine that
can function as human brain.
Is it really possible to create a human brain?
What is BLUE BRAIN
“YES", The IBM is now developing a virtual brain known as the BLUE BRAIN.
It would be the worlds first virtual brain.
Within 30 years, we will be able to scan ourselves into the computers.
WHAT IS VIRTUAL BRAIN?
A machine that can function as brain .
It can take decision.
It can think.
It can response.
It can keep things in memory.
WHY WE NEED VIRTUAL BRAIN
To upload contents of the natural brain into it .
To keep the intelligence , knowledge and skill of any person for ever .
To remember things without any effort .
FUNCTIONING OF BRAIN
Sensory Input :-
Receiving input such as sound ,image, etc
through sensory cell .
Interpretation.
Interpretation of the received input by the brain by defining states of neurons in the brain
Motor Output.
Receiving of electric responses from the brain to perform any action
BRAIN SIMULATION:-
NATURAL BRAIN VS SIMULATED BRAIN
INPUT

Through the natural neurons
Through the silicon chip or artificial neurons
INTERPRETATION
By a set of bits in
By different states of the neurons in the brain
OUTPUT
Through the natural neurons.
Through the silicon chip .
PROCESSING
Through arithmetic and logical calculations
Through arithmetic and logical calculation and artificial intelligence
MEMORY
Through permanent states of neurons
Through Secondary memory
Now there is no question how the virtual brain will work. But the question is how the human brain will be up loaded into it. This is also possible due to the first growing technology.
UPLOADING HUMAN BRAIN
The uploading is possible by the use of small robots known as the nanobots.
These robots are small enough to travel through out our circulatory system.
Traveling into the spine and brain, they will be able to monitor the activity and structure of our central nervous system.
They will be able to provide an interface with computer that is as close as our mind can be while we still reside in our biological form .
Nanobots could also carefully scan the structure of our brain, providing a complete readout of the connection.
This information, when entered into a computer, could then continue to function as us.
Thus the data stored in the entire brain will be uploaded into the computer.
RESEARCH WORK
IBM developing the “Blue brain”
IBM, in partnership with scientists at Switzerland’s Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne’s(EPFL) Brain and Mind Institute will begin simulating the brain’s biological systems.
HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIRMENT
1.A Super computer
2.Menory with a very large storing capacity
3.Processor with a very high processing power.
4.A very wide network.
5.A program to convert the electric impulses from the brain to input signal, which is to be received by the computer and vice versa.
6.very powerful Nanobots to act as the interface between the natural brain and the computer.
CONCLUSION:-
We will be able to transfer ourselves into computers at some point.
It will bring both benefits and harm to human society .
09-04-2011, 03:14 PM
Post: #21
RE: blue brain project full report
SUBMITTED BY:-
PRADEEP KUMAR


.ppt  PRESENTATION ON BLUE BRAIN 1.ppt (Size: 1.8 MB / Downloads: 176)
INTRODUCTION
THE BLUE BRAIN IS AN ATTEMPT TO CREATE A SYNTHETIC BRAIN BY REVERSE ENGINEERING THE MAMMALIAN BRAIN DOWN TO THE MOLECULAR LEVEL.LABS AROUND THE WORLD WORKING ON BLUE BRAIN GATHERED INFORMATION:IN BRAIN THE INTERACTIONS AMONG NEURONS WHAT SYNAPTIC CURRENTS WERE BEING GENERATED AND WHERE.TO RECORD ION SIGNALS FROM MANY NEURONS A TECHNIQUE IS USED i.e., A MULTIPULE UNIT PATCH CLAM TECHNIQUE.
MULTIPLE UNIT PATCH CLAMP ROBOT.
LATER ON THE PROJECT WITH THE HELP OF NEURONS SCIENTISTS MAKE A NEUROGRID CHIP WHICH WORK THE SAME WAY AS THE BRAIN DOES.
OBJECTIVES
IN THE FIRST PHASE , SCIENTISTS FIRST DEVELOP THE MODEL OF NEOCORTICAL COLUMN,IT IS THE BASIC FUNCTIONAL UNIT OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX IN MAMMALS THAT UNDERLIES NEARLY ALL SENSORY AND COGNITIVE PROCRSSING,
THE SECOND PHASE OR PROCESS IS THE FUNCTIONAL SIMULATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS IN THE HUMAN BRAIN IT CAN BE DONE IN 10 YEARS BY HENRY MARKRAM AND IF IT BUILD CORRECTLY IT SHOULD SPEAK AND HAVE AN INTELLIGENCE AND BEHAVE VERY MUCH AS A HUMAN DOES,
CONSEQUENCES
EACH NEUROCORTICAL COLUMN(NCC) WILL BE UNIQUE
n HOPEFULLY,NCC OUTPUT WILL
APPROACH CONVERGENCE
n NCCs WILL BEGIN TO APPEAR
SIMILAR(lack of molecular detail tie
in genetic elements)
CONNECTED NEURONS FIRE TOGETHER
n EMERGENT BEHAVIOR
FUTURE WORK
n Experimental Aid
n How complex of a problem
can an NCC solve
n Emergence of Consciousness
¨Director Markram
23-04-2011, 07:06 PM
Post: #22
RE: blue brain project full report
please send me the pdf file of blue brain
28-05-2011, 09:21 AM
Post: #23
RE: blue brain project full report
ABSTRACT
The Blue Brain Project is an attempt to create a synthetic brain by reverse-engineering the mammalian brain down to the molecular level. The aim of the project, founded in May 2005 by the Brain and Mind Institute of the École Polytechnique in Lausanne, Switzerland, is to study the brain's architectural and functional principles. The project is headed by the Institute's director, Henry Markram. Using a Blue Gene supercomputer running Michael Hines's NEURON software, the simulation does not consist simply of an artificial neural network, but involves a biologically realistic model of neurons. It is hoped that it will eventually shed light on the nature of consciousness. There are a number of sub-projects, including the Cajal Blue Brain, coordinated by the Supercomputing and Visualization Center of Madrid (CeSViMa), and others run by universities and independent laboratories in the UK, US, and Israel.

INTRODUCTION
In the basement of a university in Lausanne, Switzerland sit four black boxes, each about the size of a refrigerator, and filled with 2,000 IBM microchips stacked in repeating rows. Together they form the processing core of a machine that can handle 22.8 trillion operations per second. It contains no moving parts and is eerily silent. When the computer is turned on, the only thing you can hear is the continuous sigh of the massive air conditioner. This is Blue Brain.
The Blue Brain Project is an attempt to reverse engineer the brain, to explore how it functions and to serve as a tool for neuroscientists and medical researchers. It is not an attempt to create a brain. It is not an artificial intelligence project. Although we may one day achieve insights into the basic nature of intelligence and consciousness using this tool, the Blue Brain Project is focused on creating a physiological simulation for biomedical applications.
The aim is to study the brain's architectural and functional principles. The project was founded by Henry Markram from the Brain and Mind Institute at the École Polytechnique (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland. and is based on 15 years of experimental data obtained from reverse engineering the microcircuitry of the neocortical column.

HUMAN BRAIN
The human brain is the center of the human nervous system and is a highly complex organ. Enclosed in the cranium, it has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but is over three times as large as the brain of a typical mammal with an equivalent body size. Most of the expansion comes from the cerebral cortex, a convoluted layer of neural tissue that covers the surface of the forebrain. Especially expanded are the frontal lobes, which are involved in executive functions such as self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought. The portion of the brain devoted to vision is also greatly enlarged in human beings.
Brain evolution, from the earliest shrewlike mammals through primates to hominids, is marked by a steady increase in encephalization, or the ratio of brain to body size. The human brain has been estimated to contain 50–100 billion (1011) neurons, of which about 10 billion (1010) are cortical pyramidal cells. These cells pass signals to each other via as many as 1000 trillion (1015) synaptic connections.
The brain monitors and regulates the body's actions and reactions. It continuously receives sensory information, and rapidly analyzes this data and then responds, controlling bodily actions and functions. The brainstem controls breathing, heart rate, and other autonomic processes. The neocortex is the center of higher-order thinking, learning, and memory. The cerebellum is responsible for the body's balance, posture, and the coordination of movement.

CONCEPT OF BLUE BRAIN
The Blue Brain Project (BBR) is the first project of its kind where the brain is going to be simulated on the computer so that some of the brain’s functions could be understood better.
In 2005 IBM started new project that would recreate human brain by using IBM’s Blue Gene supercomputer. At the end of the developing it would be able to act like the brain. It is currently being developed in Ecoles Polytechnique Fédéralede Laussane. Cortex is the part of the brain that is filled with the grey matter. This part of the brain is responsible for thinking, remembering, reflexes, communication, adaptation to new surrounding, planning the future etc. Neurons are one of the main units of the brain. The brain contains billions of these neurons. Nervous system transfers signals via neurons. In the cortex neurons are organized into functional units. These units operate like microcircuits in a computer known as the Neo Cortical Column (NCC) shown in fig. 3.1.





Main circuit was built with one goal and that is to model neurons, connections between them and the column. The data that was collected previously on juvenile rat will be used as a model to run the Blue Gene supercomputer which will recreate each of the 10,000 neurons in the NCC. Second step is simulating connections between neurons. Some of the problems that are emerging here are all the possibilities. In a column that has 10000 neurons, that can create trillions possible connections. So it will be on Blue Gene to find optimal connection scenario. Last step is modeling the actual column. This is going to be final step of the project. To this day no such project has being developed that can simulate the actual neurons with the optimal number of connections in between them.

The Blue Gene supercomputer has 8192 processors and all of them will have to be activated for solving complex mathematical equations that govern neuron and its behavior when stimuli is applied on them. The results are going to be sent via inter-processor communication. The time that it takes to simulate the whole thing now is not as fast as the actual biological time required. However, future research is going to be based on increasing a speed to the point where it is going to work in a real time, like the brain.

Some of the benefits that this project is going to create are: understanding neocortical information processing, new tool for drug discovery for brain disorders, foundation for brain simulation, cracking the neural code, etc.









The cerebral cortex, the convoluted "grey matter" that makes up 80% of the human brain, is responsible for our ability to remember, think, reflect, empathize, communicate, adapt to new situations and plan for the future. The cortex first appeared in mammals, and it has a fundamentally simple repetitive structure that is the same across all mammalian species.
The brain is populated with billions of neurons, each connected to thousands of its neighbors by dendrites and axons, a kind of biological "wiring". The brain processes information by sending electrical signals from neuron to neuron along these wires. In the cortex, neurons are organized into basic functional units, cylindrical volumes 0.5 mm wide by 2 mm high, each containing about 10,000 neurons that are connected in an intricate but consistent way. These units operate much like microcircuits in a computer. This microcircuit, known as the neocortical column (NCC), is repeated millions of times across the cortex. The difference between the brain of a mouse and the brain of a human is basically just volume - humans have many more neocortical columns and thus neurons than mice.
This structure lends itself to a systematic modeling approach. And indeed, the first step of the Blue Brain project is to re-create this fundamental microcircuit, down to the level of biologically accurate individual neurons. The microcircuit can then be used in simulations

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29-05-2011, 11:52 AM
Post: #24
RE: blue brain project full report
Hi,

I have found it very interseting project. Can you please forward me the full report with details how to implement it via email sahilsingla112[at]gmail.com Many many thanks in advance.

Best Regards,
Sahil Singla
+919007260623
sahilsingla112[at]gmail.com
02-08-2011, 02:32 PM
Post: #25
RE: blue brain project full report
Presented by:
JISHNU G KANNAN


.ppt  BLUE BRAIN.ppt.ppt (Size: 1.23 MB / Downloads: 146)
  THE ARTIFICIAL BRAIN IN REALITY:
INTRODUCTION

First comprehensive attempt to reverse-engineer the mammalian brain.
We lose the knowledge of a brain when the body is destroyed after death .
What would happen if we create an artificial brain and upload the contents of natural brain into it??
WHAT IS BLUE BRAIN?
Scientists are in research to create an artificial brain that can think, respond and take decisions.
A network of artificial nerves is evolving right now in a Swiss super computer.
Blue brain will offer a better understanding of human consciousness.
Focused on biomedical applications.
REAL BRAIN BEHIND THE VIRTUAL BRAIN
HENRY MARKRAM
Project director of The Blue Brain Project
MILESTONES
In July ’05, EPFL and IBM announced a new research initiative- a project to create a functional model of brain.
In ’06, the project created a model of the basic functional unit of the brain- The NeoCorticalColumn(NCC).
Initial goal of project was completed in dec ‘06- Simulation of rat’s NCC.
In Nov ‘07, end of Phase-I was reported.
COMBINING COMPUTER SCIENCE AND NEURO SCIENCE
The Brain:
Cerebral Cortex
Convoluted grey matter that makes up 80% of the human brain.
Responsible for our ability to think, respond, communicate and plan for the future.
BIOLOGICAL NEURON
Biological neuron: Basic component of brain.
Connected by dendrites and axons
Brain process information by sending electrical signals from neuron to neuron.
NEOCORTICAL COLUMN(NCC)
In cortex, neurons are organized into basic functional units each containing about 10000 neurons.
Operates much like microcircuits in a computer.
ARTIFICIAL NEURONS
2 modes of operation
In training mode, the neuron can be trained to fire (or not).
In using mode, when a taught input pattern is detected at the input, its associated output becomes the current output.
THREE ASPECTS OF COMPUTATION
Neural computing must achieve balance between:
Processing functions
Communicating functions
Storage functions
These are the three aspects of computation
BUILDING THE MICRO CIRCUITRY
Modeling neurons and connections: Blue Gene recreates each neurons in NCC and fixes the synapse locations.
Modeling column: Result of calculations is a re-creation of the NCC.
SIMULATION OF MICRO-CIRCUITRY
8192 processors of the Blue Gene are pressed into service.
Parallel computation solves the complex mathematical equations that govern the electrical activity in each neuron.
Results are communicated via inter-processor communication.
Time required to simulate is twice the magnitude than the actual biological time.
BLUE GENE SUPERCOMPUTER
IBM’s Super Computer
360 TFLOPS of computing power from 8192 PowerPC CPUs each running at 700MHz and arranged in a toroidal mesh.
BLUE GENE
Built of large number of nodes, each having relatively modest clock rate.
Each node consists of a single ASIC and 2 GB memory.
Each processor can perform 4 floating point operations per cycle. Each node contains a second processor for handling message passing.
Scalable system software that supports efficient executing.
INTREPRETING THE RESULTS
Analysis of individual neurons must be repeated 1000s of times.
Visual exploration of circuit is important to analysis.
Mapping simulation data onto the morphology is for immediate verification.
NCC has 10,000 neurons.
When Impulse travels, neurons light up and change colour as they become electrically active.
Calibration is the second stage of the Blue Brain project.
ELEMENTARY BUILDING BLOCKS OF NEURAL MICROCIRCUITRY
MODELLING OF THE BRAIN
BUILDING THE BLUE COLUMN
Parse each 3D morphology and correct errors.
Statistics are used to clone neurons in each class.
Insert ion channel models to produce the array of electrical types.
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE
INITIAL OBSERVATIONS

Willful and unpredictable from day one.
When first fed with electrical impulses, strange patterns with lightning like flashes appeared.
Neurons started interacting with one another.
Artificial cells used are random and unique.
ADVANTAGES
1. Remembering things without any effort.
2. Making decisions without the presence of a person.
3. Using intelligence of a person after his death. .
4. Understanding the activities of animals.
5. Allowing the deaf to hear via direct nerve
stimulation.
DISADVANTAGES
1. We become dependent upon the computer.
2. Others may use technical knowledge against us.
3. Another fear is found today with respect to human cloning.
4. Computer viruses can pose an increasingly critical threat.
APPLICATIONS
1. Gathering and testing 100 years of data
2. Understanding neocortical information processing
3. A novel tool for drug discovery for brain disorders
4. A foundation for whole brain simulations
FUTURE WORKS
Phase 1 provide the basis for increasing the resolution of the models and expanding the size of the models.
Information from the molecular and genetic level will be added to the algorithms.
Insights into how human beings think and remember.
Shed light on psychiatric disorders.
If we crack open the secret of how and why the brain does it, could lead to new breed of supercomputers.
CONCLUSION
We will be able to transfer ourselves into computers at some point.
Answers to mental retardation and brain abnormalities can be solved at earlier stages.
Diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s that rid a person of his dignity could be eradicated totally.
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