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02-02-2010, 09:58 PM
Post: #1
bionic eyes for the blind full report


.doc  Bionic Eyes - Hope for the blind.doc (Size: 130 KB / Downloads: 1389)

Paper Presentation On Bionic Eyes - Hope for the blind!
Abstract
Technology has done wonders for the mankind. We have seen prosthetics that helped overcome handicaps. Bio medical engineers play a vital role in shaping the course of these prosthetics. Now it is the turn of Artificial Vision through Bionic Eyes.
Chips-designed specifically to imitate the characteristics of the damaged retina, and the cones and rods of the organ of sight are implanted with a microsurgery.
Whether it be Bio medical, Computer, Electrical, or Mechanical Engineers “ all of them have a role to play in the personification of Bionic Eyes. This multidisciplinary nature of the ˜new technology™ has inspired me to present this paper.
There is hope for the blind in the form of Bionic Eyes. This technology can add life to their vision less eyes!

Presented by
-K. Harish Kumar, M. Santosh Kumar, T.Sanjeev Kumar


Introduction:

There is no lovelier way to
thank God for your sight
Than by giving a helping hand
To those in dark.
There is no replacement for human sight. It is simply incomparable because of its capacity to see. Our life is full of pictures we daily see. Life without sight is dark. And blind people lead dark lives. As capable human beings, we need to do something more than just helping a blind person cross the road.
Belonging to the community of engineers “ there is no frontier that we cannot conquer. If scientists give birth to ideas, then it is we engineers who put life into those ideas. Today, we have every tool in our hand. The ball is in our court! It is our turn now, to return what mankind has given us. What about bestowing sight for the blind? There is no magic wand to do this in a jiffy. But yes! We certainly know the magic route to reach our goal: Science and Technology.
Today, we talk of artificial intelligence that has created waves of interest in the field of robotics. When this has been possible, why not artificial vision? It is with this dream that I present this paper on Bionic Eyes. Sooner or later, this shall create a revolution in the field of medicine.
It is important to know few facts about the organ of sight i.e, the Eye before we proceed towards the technicalities involved.
How are we able to see?
Having seen the anatomical part of human eye, lets try to know as to how we are able to see “ how is an image being formed?
For vision to occur, 2 conditions need to be met:
1.An image must be formed on the retina to stimulate its receptors (rods and cones).
2.Resulting nerve impulses must be conducted to the visual areas of the cerebral cortex for interpretation.
Four processes focus light rays, so that they form a clear image on the retina
1.refraction of light rays
2.accommodation of the lens
3.constriction of the pupil
4.convergence of the eyes
How is vision impaired?
Damage or degeneration of the optic nerve, the brain, or any part of the visual pathway between them, can impair vision. For example, the pressure associated with glaucoma can also damage the optic nerve. Diabetes, already cited as a cause of retina damage, can also cause degeneration of the optic nerve.
Damage to the visual pathway does not always result in total loss of sight. Depending on where the damage occurs, only a part of the visual field may be affected. For example, a certain form of neuritis (nerve inflammation), often associated with multiple sclerosis, can cause loss of only the center of the visual field “ a condition called scotoma.
A stroke can cause vision impairment when the resulting tissue damage occurs in one of the regions of the brain that process visual information. For example, damage to an area that process information about colors may result in a rare condition called acquired cortical color blindness. This condition is characterized by difficulty in distinguishing any color “ not just one or two colors as in the more common inherited forms of color blindness.
A more common treatment for curing blindness has been corneal transplantation. More about it:
Corneal Transplants:
Surgical removal of opaque or deteriorating corneas and replacement with donor transplants is a common medical practice. Corneal tissue is avascular; that is, the cornea is free of blood vessels. Therefore corneal tissue is seldom rejected by the bodyâ„¢s immune system. Antibodies carried in the blood have no way to reach the transplanted tissue, and therefore long-term success following implant surgery is excellent.
What are Bionic Eyes?
An artificial eye provokes visual sensations in the brain by directly stimulating different parts of the optic nerve.
There are also other experimental implants that can stimulate the ganglia cells on the retina or the visual cortex of the brain itself. There is more concentration given to the production of artificial retinas.
Here is the description of a Bionic Eye:
Many types of artificial eyes have been designed and research is still going on . There is no standard model in this case. Researchers are working out different types of concepts. Here are a few examples:
The prototype devices are 2 millimeters across and contain some 3,500 micro photodiodes. Placed behind the retina, this collection of miniature solar cells is designed to convert natural light to electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain by the remaining healthy parts of the retina.

A Belgian device has a coil that wraps around the optic nerve, with only four points of electrical contact. By shifting the phase and varying the strength of the signals, the coil can stimulate different parts of the optic nerve, rather like the way the electron guns in TVs are aimed at different parts of the screen. The video signals come from an external camera and are transmitted to the implant via a radio antenna and microchip beneath the skin just behind the ear.
Implants of a microchip, smaller than the head of a pin and about half the thickness of a sheet of paper were used to remove blindness.
Engineering details of the Bionic Eye:
First, for visually impaired people to derive the greatest benefit from an enhanced-vision system, the image must be adapted to their particular blind areas and areas of poor acuity or contrast sensitivity. Then the information arriving instantaneously at the eye must be shifted around those areas. The thrust of all prosthetic vision devices is to use an electrode array to give the user perceptions of points of light (phosphenes) that are correlated with the outside world. Thus, to achieve the expected shift of the image across the stimulating electrode array, the camera capturing the image must follow the wearer's eye or pupil movements by monitoring the front of the eye under infrared (IR) illumination. The eye-position monitor controls the image camera's orientation. If the main image-acquisition camera is not mounted on the head, compensation for head movement will be needed, as well.
Finally, if a retinal prosthesis is to receive power and signal input from outside the eye via an IR beam entering the pupil, the transmitter must be aligned with the intraocular chip. The beam has two roles: it sends power, and it is pulse- or amplitude-modulated to transmit image data. Under the control of eye movement, the main imaging camera for each eye can swivel in any direction. Each of these cameras--located just outside the users' field of view to avoid blocking whatever peripheral vision they might have--captures the image of the outside world and transmits the information through an optical fiber to a signal-processing computer worn on the body.
The surgery!
This concept of Artificial Vision is also interesting to engineers, because there are a number of technicalities involved in this surgery apart from the anatomical part.
The microsurgery starts with three incisions smaller than the diameter of a needle in the white part of the eye. Through the incisions, surgeons introduce a vacuuming device that removes the gel in the middle of the eye and replaces it with saline solution. Surgeons then make a pinpoint opening in the retina to inject fluid in order to lift a portion of the retina from the back of the eye, creating a pocket to accommodate the chip. The retina is resealed over the chip, and doctors inject air into the middle of the eye to force the retina back over the device and close the incisions.
During the entire surgery, a biomedical engineer takes part actively to ensure that there is no problem with the chip to be implanted.
Some facts about Bionic Eyes:
Scientists at the Space Vaccum Epitaxy Centre (SVEC) based at the University of Houston, Texas, are using a new material, comprising tiny ceramic photocells that could detect incoming light and repair malfunctioning human eyes. Scientists at SVEC are conducting preliminary tests on the biocompatibility of this ceramic detector.
The artificial retinas constructed at SVEC consist of 100,000 tiny ceramic detectors, each 1/20th the size of a human hair. The assemblage is so small that surgeons canâ„¢t safely handle it. So, the arrays are attached to a polymer film one millimeter in size. After insertion into an eyeball, the polymer film will simply dissolve leaving only the array behind after a couple of weeks.
The Analogy:
There is a great degree of coherence between the way our eyes function to that of a camera. Perhaps “ our eyes had been the inspiration behind the camera™s invention. Here™s more about it:
From the structural point of view the eye may be compared with a camera. The eyelids act as a shutter and there is an entrance window for light “ the cornea; a diaphragm to regulate the aperture and therefore the amount of light entering “ the iris; a lens to focus the image; a darkened interior formed by the choroid, and a light “sensitive plate which receives the image “ the retina.
Brain Implants:
There is one more concept similar to Bionic Eyes that is also making waves in the medical field and that is the use of Brain Implants to remove blindness.
In recent years, progress is being made towards sensory substitution devices for the blind. In the long run, there could be the possibility of brain implants. A brain implant or cortical implant provides visual input from a camera directly to the brain via electrodes in contact with the visual cortex at the backside of the head.
If we try to do a fair and objective comparison between auditory display technology and brain implant technology it should first be stressed that result of any comparisons can of course change over time as the respective technologies are further developed and refined.
The Challenges:
There are many very many obstacles to be overcome before Bionic Eyes become a success story.
Our eyes are perhaps the most sensitive of all organs in the human body. A nano-sized irritant
can create havoc in the eye.
¢ There are 120 million rods and 6 million cones in the retina of every
healthy human eye. Creating an artificial replacement for these is no
easy task.
¢ Si based photo detectors have been tried in earlier attempts. But Si
is toxic to the human body and reacts unfavorably with fluids in the eye.
¢ There are many doubts as to how the brain will react to foreign signals
generated by artificial light sensors.
¢ Infection and negative reaction are the always-feared factors. It is
imperative that all precautionary measures need to be ascertained.
Conclusion:
Restoration of sight for the blind is no more a dream today. Bionic Eyes have made this true.
Though there are a number of challenges to be faced before this technology reaches the
common man, the path has been laid. This paper has tried to present the concept of
Artificial Vision through a engineers viewpoint. Engineers play a major role in the design
stage of Bionic Eyes.
It is just a matter of 4-5 years, that the blind will be able to see through these Bionic Eyes;
thanks to Science and Technology.
References:
1. Neural Implants “ First Bionic Eyes by Victor Chase.
2. Hitting the Nerve (from the New Scientist).
3. Doctors Test Chips in Eyeballs to Restore Sight from azcentral.com
4. http://www.dobelle.com
5. Anthonyâ„¢s textbook of Anatomy and Physiology - Gary A Thibodeau, Kevin T Patton
6. Science Reporter (December 2004)
04-02-2010, 09:35 AM
Post: #2
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report

.ppt  Bionics-Help-for-the-disabled.ppt (Size: 507 KB / Downloads: 678)

.ppt  Bionics.ppt (Size: 2.16 MB / Downloads: 832)
16-03-2010, 07:06 PM
Post: #3
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
please read http://www.seminarprojectsThread-bionics-full-report for more about bionic eyes for the blind

Please Use Search http://seminarprojects.com/search.php wisely To Get More Information About A Seminar Or Project Topic
26-08-2010, 08:01 PM
Post: #4
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
hello i want full report on bionic eyes..!plz send
17-02-2011, 03:55 PM
Post: #5
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report

.pptx  ppt eye.pptx (Size: 1.06 MB / Downloads: 258)
BIONIC EYE
A Look into Current Research and Future Prospects
WHAT’S BIONIC EYE ?

 Bio-electronic eye
 Electronic device which replaces functionality of a part or whole of the eye.
 Used for replacing functionality (or)
 Adding functionality to the eye.
Causes of Blindness:
Damage to:

 Clear Structures in the eye, that allow the light to pass through
 The nerves within the eye
 Optic Nerve
 Brain
Why we should be optimistic?
The Success of :
 Cardiac pacemakers as neural prosthesis
 Cochlear implants to restore hearing to the deaf.
Rapid developments in :
 VLSI design
 Micro- fabrication technology
MIT-Harvard device:
Features

 Epi-Retinal Approach
 Microelectrode array replaces damaged photoreceptors
 Power source – Laser(820nm wavelength)
 Image Acquisition - Using CCD Camera
 Patient spectacle holds the camera and power source
Implant Structure:
 Layers
1- Photodiode Array
2- Polyimide strip
3- Stimulator chip
 Electrodes on other end of Polyimide strip
The Eye:
 Human Eye is similar to a camera
 Macula provides the highest resolution of the image which we see.
 Macula is comprised of multiple layers of cells which process the initial “analog "light energy entering the eye into “digital”
electrochemical impulses.
 Human eye has nearly 100 million photoreceptors.
Fundamental idea behind ASR
 ASR is a solid state biocompatible chip which contains an array of photo receptors ,and is implanted to replace the functionality of the defective photoreceptors .
 Current generated by the device in response to light stimulation will alter the membrane potential of the overlying neurons and thereby activate the visual system.
 Visual sensations or “phosphenes” can be evoked by electrical stimulation of the different levels of the visual pathway.
 Phosphenes are evoked by the stimulation of the eyeball or the visual cortex.
 Artificial vision created by the controlled electric stimulation of the retina has color.
Post Implant function and Inference:
 Measurement procedure:
 IR stimulation at 940nm on the ASR chip
 Recorded at the corneal surface using contact lens electrode
 Comparison of responses of gold, platinum and iridium electrodes
 Iridium based device has a longer persistence
 Stability of these electrodes
18-03-2011, 02:24 PM
Post: #6
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
Amalant Alfias.A
Abirami.T


.doc  electronic eye.doc (Size: 110.5 KB / Downloads: 112)
AN ELECTRONIC EYE FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED
Abstract: This paper proposes a method for detecting frontal pedestrian crossings from image data obtained with a single camera as a travel aid for the visually challenged. The process of detecting a crossing is a pre-process followed by the process for detecting the state of the traffic lights. It is important for the visually challenged to know whether or not a frontal area is a crossing. The existence of a crossing is detected in two steps. In the first step, edge detection and pattern detection are employed to identify the crossing. In the second step, the existence of a crossing is detected by checking the periodicity of white lines on the road using projective invariants.
I) INTRODUCTION
Blindness is the most feared of all human ailments. Crossing busy roads can be a challenge for people with good vision. For blind people, it is a perilous activity. Our electronic eye aims at helping millions of blind and visually impaired people lead more independent lives.
The electronic eye can be adapted to help the blind or visually impaired get around without a walking stick or seeing-eye dog. Canes and other travel aids with sonar or lasers can alert the user to approaching objects. Global Positioning Systems can tell what streets, restaurants, parks and other landmarks the user is passing. Devices like these are very good at giving locations and directions. But the limitations of G.P.S. technology mean that they cannot pin down the location of a curb or crosswalk and frequently fail in areas that have many tall buildings and high traffic. None of these devices are able to specifically identify a crosswalk, nor do they have the potential for figuring out the state of the traffic signals.
An effective navigation system would improve the mobility of millions of blind people all over the world. Our new “eye” will allow blind people to cross busy roads in total safety for the first time. Our “electronic eye”, which would be mounted on a pair of glasses, will be capable of detecting the existence and location of a pedestrian crossing, and at the same time measure the width of the road to the nearest step and detect the color of the traffic lights.
II) AN OVERVIEW OF OUR ELECTRONIC EYE
We have developed a system that is able to detect the existence of a pedestrian crossing in front of a blind person using a single camera. By measuring the width of the road and the color of traffic lights, this single camera can now give the blind all the information they need to cross a road in safety. The camera would be mounted at eye level, and be connected to a tiny computer. It will relay information using a voice speech system and give vocal commands and information through a small speaker placed near the ear.
III) FUNCTIONING OF THE SYSTEM
1) Tells the user whether any cross road is present
2) Tells the user whether the traffic signal is favorable or not
3) Tells the user the time taken to cross the road.
The style of crosswalks commonly used in India are known as zebra crossings and they feature a series of thick white bands that run in the same direction as the vehicle traffic.
To detect the presence of a zebra crossing we use the “projective invariant” which takes the distance between the white lines and a set of linear points on the edges of the white lines. This gives an accurate way of detecting whether crossing is present in a given image or not.
The length of a pedestrian crossing is measured by projective geometry. The camera makes an image of the white lines painted on the road, and then the actual distances are determined using the properties of geometric shapes as seen in the image.
The traffic light detector checks images for symmetrical shapes and compares them to a list of road signs. If the pedestrian light is ON, the voice speech system instructs the user to cross the road.
The timer unit calculates the average time required by the visually challenged person to cross the road and ‘tells’ it to the user via the voice speech system.
High-level scene interpretation applied to the processed images will produce a symbolic description of the scene. The symbolic description is then converted into verbal instructions appropriate to the needs of the user by using voice speech software
IV) IMAGE ANALYSER
The image analyzer contains the bitmap image, which has to be processed to detect the presence of a zebra crossing. Given an X-bit per pixel image, slicing the image at different planes (bit-planes) plays an important role in image processing.
Edge detection :
One way to detect edges or variations within a region of an image is by using the gradient operator. There are several well-known gradient filters. In this experiment we use the Sobel gradients, which are obtained by convolving the image with two kernels, one for each direction.
Crossroad pattern detection:
The zebra crossing has alternate white bands running across the width of the road. This pattern has to be recognized to confirm the presence of a crossing. To detect basic shapes within the image, we make use of the Hough transform. At its simplest the Hough transform can be used to detect straight lines from edges detected in an earlier processing step.
If the pixels detected fall on a straight line then they can be expressed by the equation:
Y=mx+c
The basis of the Hough transform is to translate the points in (x, y) space into (m,c) space using the equation:
c=(-x)m+y
Thus each point in (x,y) space (i.e. the image) represents a line in (m,c) space. Where three or more of these lines intersect a value can be found for the gradient (m) and intercept © of the line that connects the (x,y) space points.
Calculation of the width of the road and time required to cross it:
Calculation of the width of the road is based on the concept of projection invariants. This requires us to define the term Cross Ratio.
18-03-2011, 02:43 PM
Post: #7
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report

.doc  Bionic eye.doc (Size: 132 KB / Downloads: 109)
Bionic Eyes - Hope for the blind!
Abstract

Technology has done wonders for the mankind. We have seen prosthetics that helped overcome handicaps. Bio medical engineers play a vital role in shaping the course of these prosthetics. Now it is the turn of Artificial Vision through Bionic Eyes.
Chips-designed specifically to imitate the characteristics of the damaged retina, and the cones and rods of the organ of sight are implanted with a microsurgery.
Whether it be Bio medical, Computer, Electrical, or Mechanical Engineers – all of them have a role to play in the personification of Bionic Eyes. This multidisciplinary nature of the ‘new technology’ has inspired me to present this paper.
There is hope for the blind in the form of Bionic Eyes. This technology can add life to their vision less eyes!
Introduction:
“There is no lovelier way to
thank God for your sight
Than by giving a helping hand
To those in dark.”
There is no replacement for human sight. It is simply incomparable because of its capacity to see. Our life is full of pictures we daily see. Life without sight is dark. And blind people lead dark lives. As capable human beings, we need to do something more than just helping a blind person cross the road.
Belonging to the community of engineers – there is no frontier that we cannot conquer. If scientists give birth to ideas, then it is we engineers who put life into those ideas. Today, we have every tool in our hand. The ball is in our court! It is our turn now, to return what mankind has given us. What about bestowing sight for the blind? There is no magic wand to do this in a jiffy. But yes! We certainly know the magic route to reach our goal: Science and Technology.
Today, we talk of artificial intelligence that has created waves of interest in the field of robotics. When this has been possible, why not artificial vision? It is with this dream that I present this paper on Bionic Eyes. Sooner or later, this shall create a revolution in the field of medicine.
It is important to know few facts about the organ of sight i.e, the Eye before we proceed towards the technicalities involved.
How are we able to see?
Having seen the anatomical part of human eye, lets try to know as to how we are able to see – how is an image being formed?
For vision to occur, 2 conditions need to be met:
1.An image must be formed on the retina to stimulate its receptors (rods and cones).
2.Resulting nerve impulses must be conducted to the visual areas of the cerebral cortex for interpretation.
Four processes focus light rays, so that they form a clear image on the retina
1.refraction of light rays
2.accommodation of the lens
3.constriction of the pupil
4.convergence of the eyes
How is vision impaired?
Damage or degeneration of the optic nerve, the brain, or any part of the visual pathway between them, can impair vision. For example, the pressure associated with glaucoma can also damage the optic nerve. Diabetes, already cited as a cause of retina damage, can also cause degeneration of the optic nerve.
Damage to the visual pathway does not always result in total loss of sight. Depending on where the damage occurs, only a part of the visual field may be affected. For example, a certain form of neuritis (nerve inflammation), often associated with multiple sclerosis, can cause loss of only the center of the visual field – a condition called scotoma.
A stroke can cause vision impairment when the resulting tissue damage occurs in one of the regions of the brain that process visual information. For example, damage to an area that process information about colors may result in a rare condition called acquired cortical color blindness. This condition is characterized by difficulty in distinguishing any color – not just one or two colors as in the more common inherited forms of color blindness.
A more common treatment for curing blindness has been corneal transplantation. More about it:
Corneal Transplants:
Surgical removal of opaque or deteriorating corneas and replacement with donor transplants is a common medical practice. Corneal tissue is avascular; that is, the cornea is free of blood vessels. Therefore corneal tissue is seldom rejected by the body’s immune system. Antibodies carried in the blood have no way to reach the transplanted tissue, and therefore long-term success following implant surgery is excellent.
What are Bionic Eyes?
An artificial eye provokes visual sensations in the brain by directly stimulating different parts of the optic nerve.
There are also other experimental implants that can stimulate the ganglia cells on the retina or the visual cortex of the brain itself. There is more concentration given to the production of artificial retinas.
Here is the description of a Bionic Eye:
Many types of artificial eyes have been designed and research is still going on . There is no standard model in this case. Researchers are working out different types of concepts. Here are a few examples:
The prototype devices are 2 millimeters across and contain some 3,500 micro photodiodes. Placed behind the retina, this collection of miniature solar cells is designed to convert natural light to electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain by the remaining healthy parts of the retina.
A Belgian device has a coil that wraps around the optic nerve, with only four points of electrical contact. By shifting the phase and varying the strength of the signals, the coil can stimulate different parts of the optic nerve, rather like the way the electron guns in TVs are aimed at different parts of the screen. The video signals come from an external camera and are transmitted to the implant via a radio antenna and microchip beneath the skin just behind the ear.
Implants of a microchip, smaller than the head of a pin and about half the thickness of a sheet of paper were used to remove blindness.
Engineering details of the Bionic Eye:
First, for visually impaired people to derive the greatest benefit from an enhanced-vision system, the image must be adapted to their particular blind areas and areas of poor acuity or contrast sensitivity. Then the information arriving instantaneously at the eye must be shifted around those areas. The thrust of all prosthetic vision devices is to use an electrode array to give the user perceptions of points of light (phosphenes) that are correlated with the outside world. Thus, to achieve the expected shift of the image across the stimulating electrode array, the camera capturing the image must follow the wearer's eye or pupil movements by monitoring the front of the eye under infrared (IR) illumination. The eye-position monitor controls the image camera's orientation. If the main image-acquisition camera is not mounted on the head, compensation for head movement will be needed, as well.
Finally, if a retinal prosthesis is to receive power and signal input from outside the eye via an IR beam entering the pupil, the transmitter must be aligned with the intraocular chip. The beam has two roles: it sends power, and it is pulse- or amplitude-modulated to transmit image data. Under the control of eye movement, the main imaging camera for each eye can swivel in any direction. Each of these cameras--located just outside the users' field of view to avoid blocking whatever peripheral vision they might have--captures the image of the outside world and transmits the information through an optical fiber to a signal-processing computer worn on the body.
The surgery!
This concept of Artificial Vision is also interesting to engineers, because there are a number of technicalities involved in this surgery apart from the anatomical part.
The microsurgery starts with three incisions smaller than the diameter of a needle in the white part of the eye. Through the incisions, surgeons introduce a vacuuming device that removes the gel in the middle of the eye and replaces it with saline solution. Surgeons then make a pinpoint opening in the retina to inject fluid in order to lift a portion of the retina from the back of the eye, creating a pocket to accommodate the chip. The retina is resealed over the chip, and doctors inject air into the middle of the eye to force the retina back over the device and close the incisions.
During the entire surgery, a biomedical engineer takes part actively to ensure that there is no problem with the chip to be implanted.
Some facts about Bionic Eyes:
Scientists at the Space Vaccum Epitaxy Centre (SVEC) based at the University of Houston, Texas, are using a new material, comprising tiny ceramic photocells that could detect incoming light and repair malfunctioning human eyes. Scientists at SVEC are conducting preliminary tests on the biocompatibility of this ceramic detector.
The artificial retinas constructed at SVEC consist of 100,000 tiny ceramic detectors, each 1/20th the size of a human hair. The assemblage is so small that surgeons can’t safely handle it. So, the arrays are attached to a polymer film one millimeter in size. After insertion into an eyeball, the polymer film will simply dissolve leaving only the array behind after a couple of weeks.
The Analogy:
There is a great degree of coherence between the way our eyes function to that of a camera. Perhaps – our eyes had been the inspiration behind the camera’s invention. Here’s more about it:
From the structural point of view the eye may be compared with a camera. The eyelids act as a shutter and there is an entrance window for light – the cornea; a diaphragm to regulate the aperture and therefore the amount of light entering – the iris; a lens to focus the image; a darkened interior formed by the choroid, and a light –sensitive plate which receives the image – the retina.
Brain Implants:
There is one more concept similar to Bionic Eyes that is also making waves in the medical field and that is the use of Brain Implants to remove blindness.
In recent years, progress is being made towards sensory substitution devices for the blind. In the long run, there could be the possibility of brain implants. A brain implant or cortical implant provides visual input from a camera directly to the brain via electrodes in contact with the visual cortex at the backside of the head.
If we try to do a fair and objective comparison between auditory display technology and brain implant technology it should first be stressed that result of any comparisons can of course change over time as the respective technologies are further developed and refined.
The Challenges:
There are many very many obstacles to be overcome before Bionic Eyes become a success story.
Our eyes are perhaps the most sensitive of all organs in the human body. A nano-sized irritant
can create havoc in the eye.
• There are 120 million rods and 6 million cones in the retina of every
healthy human eye. Creating an artificial replacement for these is no
easy task.
• Si based photo detectors have been tried in earlier attempts. But Si
is toxic to the human body and reacts unfavorably with fluids in the eye.
• There are many doubts as to how the brain will react to foreign signals
generated by artificial light sensors.
• Infection and negative reaction are the always-feared factors. It is
imperative that all precautionary measures need to be ascertained.
06-04-2011, 04:59 PM
Post: #8
RE: bionic eyes for the blind full report
PRESENTED BY
G.NITHIYA DEVI
S.AUXILIA VINNARASI


.ppt  paper prsentation on electronic eye.ppt (Size: 225 KB / Downloads: 94)
INTRODUCTION
 Our electronic eye aims at helping millions of blind and visually impaired people lead more independent lives.
 An effective navigation system would improve the mobility of millions of blind people all over the world.
 Our new “eye” will allow blind people to cross busy roads in total safety for the first time.
TOP II TECH INVENTION OF 2010
THE ELECTRONIC EYE

 MIT researchers are developing a microchip that will enable a blind person to recognize faces and navigate a room without assistance. It helps the blind to regain partial eyesight.
 Users are required to wear special glasses fitted with a small camera that transmits images to the titanium- encased chip. It fires an electrode array under the retina that simulates the optic nerve.
The camera would be mounted at eye level, and be connected to a tiny computer. It will relay information using a voice speech system and give vocal commands and information through a small speaker placed near the ear
 1 – Tells the user whether any cross road is present
 2 - Tells the user whether the traffic signal is favorable or not
 3 – Tells the user the time taken to cross the road.
IMAGE ANALYSER
 The image analyzer contains the bitmap image, which has to be processed to detect the presence of a zebra crossing.
EDGE DETECTION
 There are 2 methods to detect edges:
1. Gradient
2. Laplacian
CROSSROAD PATTERN DETECTION
 To detect basic shapes within the images ,we use Hough transform .
 Hough transform can be used to detect straight lines from edges detected.
 In the first figure lines are constructed from collinear points & in the second figurea line is formed by joining the points L1,L2,L3,L4.
 Cross ratio of the original four points = the cross ratio of the constructed lines.
 To detect the presence of a zebra crossing we use the “projective invariant”
 The time required to cross the road is calculated based on an assumption that the user covers a distance of one foot in a minute on an average.
 So, the time required to cover the calculated distance is calculated based on a simple logic.
 Generally, the time taken, T, to cross the road can be found out by
TRAFFIC LIGHT DETECTOR
 The function of the traffic light detector is to recognize if the pedestrian light .
 If the user can cross the road safely, the voice speech system will instruct him to cross the road.
CURVATURE SCALE SPACE COMPUTATION AND MATCHING
 The CSS image is a multi-scale organization of the inflection points
 curvature is a local measure of how fast a planar contour is turning.
 Contour evolution is achieved by first parametrizing using arclength.
 The result is a set of 2 coordinate functions which are then convolved, with a Gaussian filter standard deviation.
 In CSS image ,the horizontal axis represents the arc length parameter
 vertical axis represents the standard deviation of the Gaussian filter.
 If an image of a pedestrian light in the image database finds a match with an image in the camera, the pedestrian can cross the road.
 The time in seconds required to cross the road is also detected based on the image of numbers in the database.
TIMING UNIT
 The timing unit compares the calculated value T, the time required by the user to cross the road with the time left to cross the road T1, as identified from the image (traffic signal time).
 If T < T1, the system instructs the user to cross the road. Else it asks to wait till it is safe to cross the road.
VOICE SPEECH SYSTEM
AUDITORY IMAGE REPRESENTATION

 The images captured by the camera t and the pixels in each column generate a particular sound pattern, consisting of a combination of frequencies
 The result is an auditory signature effectively an inverse spectrogram that characterizes the particular image.
 High-level scene interpretation applied to the processed images will produce a symbolic description of the scene.
 The symbolic description is then converted into verbal instructions appropriate to the needs of the user.
VOICE VISION
 The VOICE VISION technology for the totally blind offers the experience of live camera views through sophisticated image-to-sound renderings.
 The VOICE mapping: vertical positions of points in a visual sound are represented by pitch, while horizontal positions are represented by time-after-click.
 Brightness is represented by loudness. In this manner, pixels become... voicels
CONCLUSION
 The development of mobility aids for the visually impaired is a challenging task that has many potential solutions.
 Blind pedestrians in the greatest danger are those who must cross wide, busy roads.
 This system along with the available low technology aids can relieve the visually challenged of being dependent on others and lead normal lives.
 This effective navigation system would improve the mobility of millions of blind people all over the world.
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